Building Drawing Introduction
Building Drawing Introduction

Building Drawing Introduction

Building Drawing Introduction Drawing is the language of engineers. An engineer must be well conversant with drawings. Drawings represent reduced shape of structure and the owner will be able to see what is going to happen. Drawings are prepared as per the requirements of owner. In case of public buildings, the functional aspects are studied and accordingly the drawings are prepared as per recommendations laid down in National Building Code (N.B.C) or as per Indian Standard specifications. Any modifications like additions or omissions can be suggested from a study of the drawings before actual construct the structure accordingly. In case of public buildings or any other civil engineering works, it is essential to work out different construction of the structure is started. Drawings provide a language with specific data to Architects, Engineers and workmen at the site to parts and different views are essential so that the approval of work…

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Order of construction | Item of work |

Order of construction | Item of work | ITEMS OF WORK While preparing detailed estimate of a building it is necessary to split the entire building into different items preferably in the order of its construction. e.g. The load bearing structure to be constructed may be split into following items of work in the order of its execution as: Site clearance. Excavation for foundations. P. C. C. in foundations.  masonry in foundations.  C. R. masonary in plinth. Damp proof course at plinth level. Plinth filling with hard murum. Brick Work (or stone masonary) in Superstructure. Providing and fixing door and window frames. Lintels over openings. Flat R.C.C. or sloping roof. External and internal plastering and pointing. Providing and laying flooring. Door and Window shutters. Water supply and sanitary arrangement. Electrification. The quantities of the above items of work are calculated from the relevant drawings (i.e. plan, elevation, section and foundation…

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Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |
Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |

Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |

Learn : Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |Preliminary or Approximate or Rough Cost Estimate Plinth Area Estimate.Cubic Contents MethodApproximate Quantity MethodDetailed Estimate (or Item Rate Estimate Revised EstimateSupplementary EstimateSupplementary and Revised EstimateAnnual Repair (A.R) or Annual Maintenance (A.M.) TYPES OF ESTIMATES The estimates are broadly classified as (i) Approximate Estimates, and (ii) Detailed Estimates Before a detailed estimate of the proposed work is to be taken up, it is necessary to prepare its approximate estimate. An approximate estimate gives the approximate cost of the work and is prepared on the basis of cost of the similar works carried out in the past. Such an estimate is required to obtain administrative approval in case of Government works. Once the work is administratively approved by the Government, a detailed estimate is worked out. A detailed estimate is prepared after its complete set of drawings are ready. The quantities of various…

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 Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation
LEARN : Purpose of detailed estimate,Use of estimation,computing the quantities,purpose of estimate,use of estimate,what is estimate.purpose of estimating and costing,what is the use of estimating and costing,what is the Purpose and uses of Estimating and Costing

 Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation

LEARN : Purpose of detailed estimate,Use of estimation,computing the quantities,purpose of estimate,use of estimate,what is estimate.purpose of estimating and costing,what is the use of estimating and costing,what is the purpose of estimate,define purpose and uses of estimate Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation  Purposes of detailed estimate • In Government Organisation, a detailed estimate is required for obtaining technical sanction from the competent authorities for the proposed work. • A detailed estimate is also required for the preparation of contract (agreement) document. • The detailed estimates serve as a guide during the execution of the work. • It helps in computing the quantities of materials required and labour to be employed for the completion of various items of construction. • It is very useful in the efficient planning and programming of all activities required for the speedy completion of the work. • It enables to prepare bar-chart,…

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Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate
Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate

Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate

LEARN : Estimating and costing,Data required for preparation of estimate,Definition of Estimating,Complete Set of Detailed Drawings,Specifications of Items of Works,Prevalent Rates of Items of Construction,Standard Mode of Measurement,Details of foundation strata likely to encounter.,The exact location of the work site.,The physical condition of the work site. Introduction to Estimating and Costing Before any engineering project is to be constructed, it is necessary to know its estimated cost to ascertain whether the required funds can be made available for its completion or not. If the funds available are more than the estimated cost of the work, the execution of the work can be started. If, however, the available funds are less than the estimated cost, then either the work may be executed in parts or its specification can be altered to bring down its cost within the available funds. The actual cost of construction (which will be known after its completion)…

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SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA
SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SAILENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA TOP 5 BIGGEST DAM IN INDIA https://civilengineering.blog/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Top-5-bBggest-Dam-in-India.mp4 Bhakra Dam Location: Across river Sutlej at the foot of Shivalik Hills in Himachal Pradesh Type: Straight gravity, concrete dam Length: 518 m  Max. Height: 226 m Reservoir: Gross Storage: 9867.8 M.cu.m Live storage: 7770.9 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 1.48 M.ha (In Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan) Power: Left bank 5 units of 90 MW each, Right bank 5 units of 120 MW each Nagarjunasagar Dam Location: Across river Krishna near Nandikonda village in Nalgonda district about 144 km from Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh Type: Stone masonry and earthen dam Length: Stone masonry: 1450 m, Earthen: 3414.6 m Max. Height: 124.7 m Reservoir: Gross storage: 11538.7 M.cu.m., Live storage: 6797 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 0.83 M.ha Rana Pratap Sagar Dam Location: Across river Chambal 51.5 km upstream of Kota Barrage and 56.33 km downstream of Gandhi Sagar Dam Type:…

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Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.
Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |points shall be noted while taking measurements. |Measurement|points shall be noted while taking measurements.|Methods of measurement|Measurement|Measurement of works| Measurement of civil engineering works occupies a very important place in planning and execution of works, right from the stage of preparation of estimate to the final completion of works and settlement of payment of the works to the contractors. There are some differences regarding the method of measurement among the State Government departments. But the method introduced by the Indian Standard (I.S.) is legal and basic document for removing ambiguities and settling all the disputes for making payment to the contractors. Following points shall be noted while taking measurements. 1. Each item shall be fully described. 2. The measurement shall be taken in the order of sequence of length, breadth or width and height or depth. 3. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest to 0.01 m. 4. Area shall…

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DEVELOPMENT OF FLUID MECHANICS
Development of fluid mechanics

DEVELOPMENT OF FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid mechanics is that branch of science which deals with the behaviour of the fluids at rest as well as in motion. In general the scope of fluid mechanics is very wide which includes the study of all liquids and gases. But usually it is confined to the study of liquids and those gases for which the effects due to compressibility may be neglected. The gases with appreciable compressibility effects are governed by the laws of Thermodynamics which are however dealt with under the subject of Gas dynamics. The problems, man encountered in the fields of water supply, irrigation, navigation and water power, resulted in the development of the fluid mechanics. However, with the exception of Archimedes (250 B.C.) Principle which is considered to be as true today as some 2250 years ago, little of the scant knowledge of the ancients appears in modern fluid mechanics. After the fall of…

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Definition of fluid
Definition of fluid

Definition of fluid

Learn : Definition of fluid,liquid ,gas,vapour,ideal fluid,practical or real fluid,what is a fluid,what is a fluid give example,is liquid is fluid, what is fluid and its classification. DEFINITION OF  FLUID what is fluid and its classification A fluid may be defined as a substance which is capable of flowing. It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. Further even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied. A liquid A liquid is a fluid, which possesses a definite volume, which varies only slightly with temperature and pressure. Since under ordinary conditions liquids are difficult to compress, they may be for all practical purposes regarded as incompressible. It forms a free surface or an interface separating it from the atmosphere or any…

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Various groups in which buildings are divided.
TYPES OF BUILDING

Various groups in which buildings are divided.

various groups in which buildings are divided,National Building Code of India.(SP:7-2005),residential,                               educational,institutional buildings etc various groups in which buildings are divided National Building Code of India (SP: 7–2005) defines the building as ‘any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundations, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandah, balcony cornice or projection, part of a building or any thing affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures’. Tents, shamianas and tarpaulin, shelters are not considered as building. According to the National Building Code of India (2005), buildings are classified, based on occupancy, as follows: Group A: Residential buildings Group B: Educational buildings Group…

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