Technical Terms in masonry

Technical Terms in masonry Back and Backing. The internal surface of the wall is called back and the material used on the back is called backing. Face and Facing. The outer or exposed face of the wall is called face and the material used on the face is called facing. Hearting and Filling. The interior portion of wall between the face and back is called hearting and filling. Prepeds. These are imaginary lines containing vertical joints of the masonry. Voids. These are spaces left between the blocks of stone in the masonry. Spalls. These are chips or stone pieces used for backing up or filling the interstices in stone masonry. String course. It is a horizontal projecting course of masonry, usually projecting from the face of the wall, intended to throw off rain water. It also gives architectural appearance and adds to the strength of the wall. Cornice. It is…

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Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry

Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry,Brick masonry,Stone masonry, Masonry is the art of the construction in brick or stone. Except in dry masonry some mortar is used to bind the bricks or blocks of stones, with each other. There are in general two types of masonry, viz., Brick Masonry and Stone masonry. Brick masonry is that in which bricks are used while in stone masonry, stone blocks are used.  Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry Generally brick masonry is cheaper than stone masonry and can be easily constructed. The minimum, thickness of wall in stone masonry can be 35 cm whereas, in brick masonry, walls of 10 cm thickness can be constructed. The brick masonry construction proceeds very quickly whereas the stone masonry construction proceeds vary slowly, as the bricks are handy whereas stones are not. Skilled masons are required for stone masonry construc­tion, whereas unskilled laymen can…

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Layout of foundation plan

Layout of Foundation     Layout of foundation plan : After determining the width and depth of foundation, a drawing showing the width of foundations of various walls is prepared. It is known as foundation plan. To start the commencement of excavation, the centre line of one of the longest walls is just mark­ed out by stretching a string between two wooden pegs, driven at the ends. Now set out the centre lines of other walls, The reference to this wall.   The centre line perpendicular to the reference line, is marked on the ground by 3 : 4 : 5 method. Suppose AB is the refer­ence line. A line BC is to be marked as perpendicular to AB. Now set off a distance of 3 m (or three divisions of any length) on AB and take two strings of 4m and 5 m lengths, (or 4 and 5 divisions…

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Different types of foundations, which are generally used for structures

Content of this article : Types of foundations, Spread footing foundation, Benching or stepped foundation, Pile foundation, classification of piles foundation, Piles can be classified according to material-wooden piles,concrete piles,RCC piles, sheet piles,classification is based on the mode of working of the piles,(i) Bearing pills, and (ii) Friction piles.Raft foundation,Well foundation,Cassion's foundation,cantilever foundations,combined footing foundation,Inverted arch foundation,Grillage foundation. Types of Foundations The following are the different types of foundations, which are generally used for different structures : Spread footing foundation Benching or Stepped Foundation. Pile Foundation. Raft Foundation. Well Foundation. Caisson's Foundation. Cantilever Foundation. Combined Footing Foundation. Inverted Arch Foundation. Grillage Foundation. Spread footing foundation This is the simplest type of foundation and is generally used for ordinary build­ings on alluvial soils. This type of foundation can normally be used for three to four-storied buildings on common type of alluvial soils. The spread footing  consists of a concrete base, generally…

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