Painting new wood work

Painting new wood work

Learn : Painting new wood work : Knotting or killing the knot, Application of priming coat, Stopping, Application of finishing coats. Painting new wood work   Following points should be attended to before painting new wood work:   (i)        Only well seasoned timber should be painted otherwise not only shall the paint be spoilt but …

Continue reading Painting new wood work

Removal of old paint and painting

Removal of old paint and painting

Learn : Removal of old paint and painting : Remove the paint, old paint and painting Removal of old paint and painting REMOVAL OF OLD PAINT One of the following two methods could be employed to remove old paint from a surface : (i)        Burning the paint by directing the flame of a blow lamp on …

Continue reading Removal of old paint and painting

Preparation of oil paints

Preparation of oil paints

Learn :Preparation of oil paints Learn : Composition of oil paint PREPARATION OF OIL PAINTS. To get started making oil paint, you’ll need: 1) Cold-pressed, raw, or unrefined linseed oil – Linseed oil tends to do much of the heavy lifting in many oil based paint formulations. The reason is that unlike most plant based …

Continue reading Preparation of oil paints

Characteristics of a good paint

Learn : Characteristics of a good paint,Paints, Paints Classification Characteristics of a good paint Paints Paints  are used to protect metals, timber or plastered surfaces from the corrosive effects of weather, heat, moisture or gases etc. and also to improve their appearance. Paints Classification Paints in common use are classified as oil paints, water paints, cement …

Continue reading Characteristics of a good paint

Composition of oil paints : Base,Vehicle,Drier,Colouring pigment,Thinner

Composition of oil paints

Learn :Composition of oil paints: Base: White lead, Red lead, Zinc oxide (or zinc white), Iron Oxide, and metallic powders such as Aluminum, Copper and Bronze etc. are the commonly used bases,Vehicle: Oils most commonly used as vehicles are : Linseed oil, Poppy oil. Nut oil and Tung oil. Colouring pigments,Solvent or thinner,Drier,Inert filler Composition of …

Continue reading Composition of oil paints

Surkhi,Powdered broken brick

Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)

SURKHI Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick) locally called surkhi is used as fine aggregate in lime mortar. Surkhi,Powdered broken brick shall be prepared by finely grinding well burnt good quality bricks free from under burnt particles of soluble salts, pyrites and adherent coatings of soil or silt. The maximum quantity of clay, fine silt and …

Continue reading Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)

Analysis of T beam working stress method

Analysis of T beam working stress method

Learn : Analysis of T beam working stress method : Neutral Axis is Within the Flange (n < Df), Neutral Axis Lies in the Web of the Beam (n >Df) ANALYSIS OF T BEAM Consider the section of a T-beam shown in Fig. 2.14 (a). The analysis of a T-beam comprises of following two cases …

Continue reading Analysis of T beam working stress method

T beams and terms used in T beams in Reinforced cement concrete

T beams and terms used in T beams : Breadth of Web (bw),Thickness of the Flange (Df),Overall Depth of the Beam (D),Effective Width of the Flange (bf),Effective width of the compression flange of the flanged beam in Reinforced cement concrete T beams and terms used in T beams in Reinforced cement concrete T BEAMS In RCC construction, …

Continue reading T beams and terms used in T beams in Reinforced cement concrete

Steel beam theory is used to find the MR of doubly reinforced beam

Steel beam theory is used to find the approximate value of the moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced beam specially when the area of compression steel is equal to or more than the area of the tensile steel. Steel beam theory moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced beam The moment of resistance of …

Continue reading Steel beam theory is used to find the MR of doubly reinforced beam

Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method

Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method: Determination of moment of resistance of the given section,Determination of actual stresses in concrete and steel,Design of the section. Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method Determination of moment of resistance of the given section. Determination of actual stresses in concrete and steel. …

Continue reading Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method

Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam|Working stress method

Learn : Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam working stress method : modular ratio, Equivalent section,critical neutral axis, actual neutral axis, stresses in the section, moment of resistance. Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam working stress method  Modular Ratio (a)       Modular ratio for tensile steel is taken as m where \[m = \frac{280}{3\sigma_{cbc}}\]. (b)       Modular …

Continue reading Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam|Working stress method

Necessity of Doubly reinforced beam|working stress method

Learn : Necessity of Doubly reinforced beam, Doubly reinforced beam DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS The R.C.C. beams in which the steel reinforcement is placed in the tension as well as compression zone are called as doubly reinforced beams. The moment of resistance of a balanced R.C.C. beam of dimension b×d is Rbd2 Sometimes due to head …

Continue reading Necessity of Doubly reinforced beam|working stress method

Problems in singly reinforced beam working stress method

Learn : Three types of problems in singly reinforced beam working stress method :To determine the moment of resistance of the given section,To determine the stresses developed in concrete and steel under given loading,To design the section for given loading Problems in singly reinforced beam working stress method There are three types of problems in …

Continue reading Problems in singly reinforced beam working stress method

Balanced sections,under reinforced section and over reinforced section

  Balanced sections,under reinforced section and over reinforced section   Balanced Sections A balanced sections is that in which stress in concrete and steel reach their permissible value at the same time. This means that stress diagram is as shown in Fig. 2.6(b). The percentage of steel corresponding to this section is called as balanced …

Continue reading Balanced sections,under reinforced section and over reinforced section

Analysis of singly reinforced beam Working stress method

Learn : Analysis of singly reinforced beam Working stress method,Equivalent or Transformed Section,Strain Diagram,Stress Diagram,Neutral Axis,Stresses in Concrete and Steel , Dimensions of the Beam and Area of Steel,Percentage of Steel,Lever arm, moment of resistance Analysis of singly reinforced beam Working stress method Analysis of singly reinforced beam Working stress method : A singly reinforced …

Continue reading Analysis of singly reinforced beam Working stress method

Concept of transformed or equivalent section of a RCC beam

Learn : Concept of transformed or equivalent section of a RCC beam,load carried by steel.load carried by concrete,section in terms of concrete CONCEPT OF TRANSFORMED OR EQUIVALENT SECTION Consider an R.C.C. section shown in Fig. 2.2(a) subjected to a compressive load P. Let      A         = Area of cross-section Ac        = Area of concrete Ast       …

Continue reading Concept of transformed or equivalent section of a RCC beam

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES (CLAUSE B-2, IS456:2000)

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES (CLAUSE B-2, IS456:2000),Permissible Stresses in Concrete ( IS 456),Permissible Stress in Steel Reinforcement ( IS 456) PERMISSIBLE STRESSES (CLAUSE B-2, IS456:2000) The working stress method is based upon the concept of permissible stresses. Permissible stresses are obtained by dividing the ultimate strength of concrete or yield strength of steel (0.2% proof stress) by …

Continue reading PERMISSIBLE STRESSES (CLAUSE B-2, IS456:2000)

Types of R.C.C. beam, Fundamental assumptions of elastic theory of bending

Learn: Types of R.C.C. beam,Singly,doubly and T, Flanged Reinforced Beams,fundamental assumptions of elastic theory, Assumptions in the theory of simple bending of R.C.C. beams(Working stress method) Plain Cement Concrete has low tensile strength. A beam made up of plain cement concrete will have low load carrying capacity and will fail by cracking in the tension …

Continue reading Types of R.C.C. beam, Fundamental assumptions of elastic theory of bending

Natural rubber,Treatments to improve and modify natural rubber properties

How To Learn rubber  : Natural Rubber(India Rubber),Treatments to improve and modify natural rubber properties,Reclaimed Rubber,Synthetic Rubber,Rubber flooring materials for general purposes RUBBER It is essentially an elastic material and is obtained both as natural and as synthetic material.  Natural Rubber (India Rubber). Natural rubber  is present as an emulsion in the latex of certain …

Continue reading Natural rubber,Treatments to improve and modify natural rubber properties

Wood wool Building material

WOOD WOOL Generally it is bye-product of big timber industries in the form of shavings of light weight timbers like chir, deodar and kail etc. At times it may be specially prepared with the help of special planning machines. It is an effective heat and sound insulating material. It is fairly cheap and flexible. Generally …

Continue reading Wood wool Building material