Classification of surveying

Classification of surveying - classification based upon the nature of the field survey - land, topographical surveys, cadastral marine or hydrographic, surveying. Classification based on the object of survey - engineering, military, mine, geological and archaeological survey. Classification based on instruments used - chain, theodolite, traverse, triangulation,tacheometric, plane table, photogrammetric and aerial survey Classification of surveying Surveys may be classified under headings which define the uses or purpose of the resulting maps. Classification based upon the nature of the field survey  Land Surveying Topographical Surveys: This consists of horizontal and vertical location of certain points by linear and angular measurements and is made to determine the natural features of a country such as rivers, streams, lakes, woods, hills, etc., and such artificial features as roads, railways, canals, towns and villages.  Cadastral Surveys: Cadastral surveys are made incident to the fixing of property lines, the calculation of land area, or the transfer of…

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Primary divisions of survey Plane surveying and Geodetic surveying

Learn primary divisions of survey plane surveying and geodetic surveying spherical triangle and great circle, earths surface Primary division of survey The earth is an oblate spheroid of revolutions, the length of its polar axis (12,713,800 metres) being somewhat less than that of its equatorial axis (12,756,750 metres). Thus, the polar axis is shorter than the equatorial axis by 42.95 kilometres. Relative to the diameter of the earth this is less than 0.34 percent. If we neglect the irregularities of the earth, the surface of the imaginary spheroid is a curved surface, every element of which is normal to the plumb line. The intersection of such a surface with a plane passing through the centre of the earth will form a line continuous around the earth. The portion of such a line is known as ‘level line’ and the circle defined by the intersection is known as ‘great circle’. Thus in…

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