Classification of surveying – classification based upon the nature of the field survey – land, topographical surveys, cadastral marine or hydrographic, surveying. Classification based on the object of survey – engineering, military, mine, geological and archaeological survey. Classification based on instruments used – chain, theodolite, traverse, triangulation,tacheometric, plane table, photogrammetric and aerial survey

Classification of surveying

Surveys may be classified under headings which define the uses or purpose of the resulting maps.

Classification based upon the nature of the field survey

 Land Surveying

Topographical Surveys:

This consists of horizontal and vertical location of certain points by linear and angular measurements and is made to determine the natural features of a country such as rivers, streams, lakes, woods, hills, etc., and such artificial features as roads, railways, canals, towns and villages.

 Cadastral Surveys:

Cadastral surveys are made incident to the fixing of property lines, the calculation of land area, or the transfer of land property from one owner to another. They are also made to fix the boundaries of municipalities and of State and Federal jurisdictions. (iii) City Surveying: They are made in connection with the construction of streets, water supply systems, sewers and other works.

Marine or Hydrographic Survey.

Marine or hydrographic survey deals with bodies of water for purpose of navigation, water supply, harbour works or for the determination of mean sea level. The work consists in measurement of discharge of streams, making topographic survey of shores and banks, taking and locating soundings to determine the depth of water and observing the fluctuations of the ocean tide. 3. Astronomical Survey. The astronomical survey offers the surveyor means of determining the absolute location of any point or the absolute location and direction of any line on the surface of the earth. This consists in observations to the heavenly bodies such as the sun or any fixed star.

Classification based on the object of survey

Engineering Survey.

This is undertaken for the determination of quantities or to afford sufficient data for the designing of engineering works such as roads and reservoirs, or those connected with sewage disposal or water supply.

 Military Survey.

This is used for determining points of strategic importance.

Mine Survey.

This is used for the exploring mineral wealth.

Geological Survey.

This is used for determining different strata in the earth’s crust.

 Archaeological Survey.

This is used for unearthing relics of antiquity.

(C) Classification based on instruments used

An alternative classification may be based upon the instruments or methods employed, the chief types being:

1. Chain survey

2. Theodolite survey

3. Traverse survey

4. Triangulation survey

5. Tacheometric survey

6. Plane table survey

7. Photogrammetric survey and

8. Aerial survey.