various groups in which buildings are divided,National Building Code of India.(SP:7-2005),residential, educational,institutional buildings etc
various groups in which buildings are divided
National Building Code of India (SP: 7–2005) defines the building as ‘any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundations, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandah, balcony cornice or projection, part of a building or any thing affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures’. Tents, shamianas and tarpaulin, shelters are not considered as building.
According to the National Building Code of India (2005), buildings are classified, based on occupancy, as follows:
Group A: Residential buildings
Group B: Educational buildings
Group C: Institutional buildings
Group D: Assembly buildings
Group E: Business buildings
Group F: Mercantile buildings
Group G: Industrial buildings
Group H: Storage buildings
Group I: Hazardous buildings
1. Group A: Residential Buildings
These are those buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking or dining or both facilities, except any building classified under category C.
Buildings of group A are further sub-divided as follows:
(i) Sub-division A-1: Lodging or Rooming Houses.
These include any building or group of buildings under the same management, in which separate sleeping accommodation for a total of not more than 15 persons, on either transient or permanent basis with or without dining facilities, but without cooking facilities for individuals, is provided. A lodging or rooming house is classified as a dwelling in sub-division A-2 if no room in any of its private dwelling units is rented to more than three persons.
(ii) Sub-division A-2: One or Two Family Private Dwellings.
These include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of a single family and has a total sleeping accommodation for not more than 20 persons. If rooms in a private dwelling are rented to outsiders, these should be for accommodating not more than 3 persons. If sleeping accommodation for more than 20 persons is provided in any one residential building, it should be classified as a building sub-division A-3 or A-4 as the case may be.
(iii) Sub-division A-3: Dormitories.
These include any building in which group sleeping accommodation is provided, with or without dining facilities, for persons who are not members of the same family, in any one room or a series of closely associated rooms under joint occupancy and single management, for example, school and college dormitories, students and other hostels and military barracks.
(iv) Sub-division A-4: Apartment Houses (Flats).
These include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities, for example, apartment houses, mansions and chawls.
(v) Sub-division A-5: Hotels.
These include any building or group of buildings under single management in which sleeping accommodation, with or without dining facilities, is provided for hire to more than 15 persons who are primarily transient, for example hotels, inns, clubs and motels.
2. Group B: Educational Buildings
These include any building used for school, college, or day-care purposes for more than eight hours per week involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by Group D.
3. Group C: Institutional Buildings
These include any building or part thereof, which is used for purposes such a medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity; care of infants, conval escents or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of inmates is restricted. Institutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants.
Buildings under group C are further sub-divided as follows:
(i) Sub-division C-1: Hospitals and Sanitaria.
This sub-division includes any building or group of buildings under single management, which is used for housing persons suffering from physical limitations because of health or age, for example, hospitals, infirmaries, sanitaria and clinics.
(ii) Sub-division C-2: Custodial Institutions.
This sub-division includes any building or group of buildings under single management, which is used for the custody and care of persons such as children, convalescents and the aged, for example, homes for the aged and infirm, convalescent homes and orphanages.
(iii) Sub-division C-3: Penal Institutions.
This sub-division includes any building or a group of buildings under single management, which is used for housing persons under restraint, or who are detained for penal or corrective purposes, in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted, for examples, jails, prisons, mental hospitals, mental sanitaria and reformatories.
4. Group D: Assembly Buildings
These include any building or part of a building, where group of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purpose, for example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations and terminals of air, surface and marine public transportation service, recreation piers and stadia.
Buildings under group D are further sub-divided as follows:
(i) Sub-division D-1.
This sub-division includes any building primarily meant for theatrical or operatic performances and exhibitions and which has a raised stage, proscenium curtain, fixed or portable scenery or scenery loft, lights, motion picture booth, mechanical appliances or other theatrical accessories and equipment and which is provided with fixed seats over 1000 persons.
(ii) Sub-division D-2.
This sub-division includes any building primarily meant for use as described for sub-division D-1 but with fixed seats for less than 1000 persons.
(iii) Sub-division D-3.
This sub-division includes any building, its lobbies, rooms and other spaces connected thereto, primarily intended for assembly of people, but which has no theatrical stage or theatrical and/or cinematographic accessories and has accommodation for more than 300 persons, for example, dance halls, night clubs, halls for incidental picture shows, dramatic, theatrical or educational presentation; lectures or other similar purposes, having no theatrical stage except a raised platform and used without permanent seating arrangement; art galleries; museums; lecture halls; libraries; passenger terminals and buildings used for educational purposes for less than 8 hours per week.
(iv) Sub-division D-4.
This sub-division includes any building primarily intended for use as described in sub-division D-3 but with accommodation for less than 300 persons.
(v) Sub-division D-5.
This sub-division includes any building meant for outdoor assembly of people not covered by sub-division D-1 to D-4, for example, grand stands, stadia, amusement park structures, reviewing stands and circus tents.
5. Group E: Business Buildings
These include any building or part of a building, which is used for the transaction of business (other than that covered by building in Group F); for the keeping of accounts and records and similar purposes; doctors’ and dentists’ (unless these are covered by the provisions of Group C); service facilities, such as new stands, lunch counters serving less than 100 persons, barber shops and beauty parlours. City halls, town halls, court houses and libraries should be classified in this group in so far as the principal function of these is transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records. Minor office occupancy incidental to operation is another type of occupancy should be classified under the relevant group for main occupancy.
6. Group F: Mercantile Buildings
These include any building or part of a building, which is used as shops, stores, markets, for display and sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail. Office, storage and service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located in the same building should be included under this group. Minor merchandising operations in buildings primarily meant for other uses should be covered by group under which the predominant occupancy is classified.
7. Group G: Industrial Buildings
These include any building or part of a building, or structure in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled or processed, for example, assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, power plants, pumping stations, smoke houses, gas plants, refineries, dairies and saw mills.
8. Group H:Storage Buildings
These include any building or part of a building, used primarily for the storage or sheltering (including servicing, processing or repairs incidental to storage) of goods, wares or merchandise (except those that involve highly combustible or explosive products or materials), vehicles or animals, for example, warehouses, cold storages, freight depots, transit sheds, store houses, truck and marine terminals garages, hangers (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.
9. Group I:Hazardous Buildings
These include any building or part of a building which is used for the storage, handling, manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and/or which produce poisonous fumes or explosions; for storage, handling, manufacturing or processing which involve highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, fumes and explosive, poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases; and for the storage, handling or processing of any material producing explosive mixtures of dust or which result in division of matter into fine particles subject to spontaneous ignition.
Examples of buildings in this class are those buildings which are used for:
(a) Storage under pressure of more than 0.1 N/mm2 and in quantities exceeding 70 m3 of acetylene, hydrogen, illuminating and natural gases, ammonia, chlorine, phosgene, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methyl oxide and all gases subject to explosion, fume or toxic hazard;
(b) Storage and handling of hazardous and highly flammable liquids;
(c) Storage and handling of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other than liquids; and
(d) Manufacture of artificial flowers, synthetic leather, ammunition, explosives and fireworks.