What is Structural Engineering?
Structural Engineering deals with
and Structure design
(A) Structural Analysis Deals With
(B) Structure Design
(i)Arrangement of structural Elements
(i) Selection of material
(ii)Determination of internal forces
(ii) Preparation of the final layout of the structure
(iii) Determination of state of stresses or critical combination of stresses at various points
(iii) Design Drawing
(iv) External Reaction
(iv) Standard Specification
Structural analysis deals with
(i) Arrangements of Structural Elements
Structural analysis deals with the development of suitable arrangement of structural elements for the structures to support the external loads or the various critical combinations of loads which are likely to act on the structures.
(ii) Determination of internal forces
The analysis also deals with the determination of internal forces in the various members
( a ) Axial forces
( b ) Bending moments
( c ) Shear forces
(iii) State of stresses or critical combination of stresses at the various points
State of stresses or critical combination of stresses at the various points which includes
of these stresses
and the external reactions due to worst possible combination of the loads.
The external reactions are transmitted to the foundation.
The methods of structural analysis and the principles involved in them remain independent of the materials used for all types of structures, whether the structures are built of plastics, timber, aluminium, steel or reinforced concrete.
Structural design deals with the
- selection of proper material,
- proper sizes,
- proportions and
- shape of each member
- and its connecting details.
( I ) Selection of material
- The selection is such that it is economical and safe.
- It satisfies all the stress requirements imposed by the most severe combination of loads to which the structure is required to transmit or resist including its self-weight.
( ii )Preparation of final layout of the structure.
The structural design further deals with the preparation of final layout of the structure.
( iii ) Design drawings
- The finished design drawings with all partinent or controlling dimensions for all the members, parts and connections are made.
- The finished design drawings are necessary for fabrication and construction.
( iv ) Standard Specification
- The structural design is governed with the standard specifications.
- The hand-books are used as working tools in the structural design