Learn: Classification of Soils,Based on Age of Formation of Soil,Pan and Clay Pan,Classification Based on Salt Content,classification of soil structure

The soils may be classified in the following ways.

1. Classification Based on Age of Formation of Soil

  • According to this classification soils may be youthful soil,
  • Mature soil and Senile soils, youthful soils are fully previous,
  • whereas mature soils have low permeability.
  • The senile soils become very hard and have very low permeability.
  • Senile soil normally gives very little or no productivity.

2. Classification Based upon Geological Process of Formation

Following soils are described under this classification:

  • Alluvial soils. These soils are formed by the deposition of water-borne materials.
  • It is a very fertile type of soil for crops.
  • Residual soils. These soils are the resultant of the disintegration of rocks under various natural actions.
  • Volcanic ash. These soils are formed by the deposition of Volcanic Ash from volcanic eruptions.
  • Glacial soils. These soils are formed by transportation and deposition by glaciers.
  • ¬†Eolian soils. They are the result of deposition by wind action.
  • ¬†Colluvial soil They are formed as a result of deposition by rainwash below foothills.
  • Aggradation soils. They are the accumulation soils.
  • ¬†Degradation soils. These are the continuously zooming out soils.


Different types of soil

Pan and Clay Pan.

There are impervious hard layers formed due to compaction or cementation by silica, iron oxide or by calcium chloride etc.

3. Classification Based on Salt Content

  • Ped-o-cal. These are the soils rich in calcium carbonate.
  • Ped-al-fir. These soils rich in aluminum or iron salts come in this class.
  • Humus. These are the soils that are rich in organic salts.

Soils may also be classified on a regional basis and particle size basis. Particle size basis classification is mainly useful for the engineering structure’s point of view.