Learn: Methods of improving the fertility of the land, Organic manure, Chemical manure, Green manure, Leaching method, craping the saltish crust, Surface drainage.
METHODS OF IMPROVING FERTILITY OF LAND
- If deficiencies of any land are made good it becomes suitable for growing crops.
- If the land is too clayey it can be improved by adding sand to it.
- Similarly, sandy soils can be improved by adding a suitable amount of clay to it.
- Soils can be improved as regards its fertility by adding:
- Organic manure;
- Chemical manure;
- Green manure.
- Cowdung manure is organic manure.
- It is available in the village in large amounts, as every villager maintains animals.
- All the manures manufactured by large companies are chemical manures.
- Superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate, are the forms of chemical manures.
- Green manure is developed by sowing some crops in the field. When crop becomes about 10-20 cm high
- It is plowed in the field which after decomposition gives nutrients to the crops to be gown over it.
- When, due to over-irrigation or any other reason, a lot of harmful salts get deposited on top layers of soil, it becomes unproductive.
- If the amount of harmful salts exceeds the certain limit the land may not be in a position to grow any crop.
- Such lands have to be reclaimed.
- Such land is known as kallar land.
- The following are the methods of land reclamation.
- Leaching method.
- craping the saltish crust.
- Surface drainage.
- By adding some chemicals so as to neutralize the harmful salts.
- By sowing some special crop that would neutralize the harmful salts.
- Out of these methods, the leaching method is very common.
- In this method, the land is always kept filled with water.
- The salts get dissolved in water and percolate deep in the land.
- Thus the concentration of salts at the surface is reduced.
- Deep ditches are also constructed along both sides of the field.
- In the scraping method, the top layer of soil is scrapped completely
- The concentration of harmful salts is reduced.
- In the surface drainage method, water is filled in the field.
- The water is agitated by moving animals in the field.
- The salts get dissolved in water.
- The water is lastly drained out of fields by means of drainage ditches constructed along with the fields.
Preparation of Land for Irrigation.
Whenever a new area of land is brought under irrigation the following steps are taken so that irrigation water could profitably be applied to this new area.
- The area is cleared from jungles, bushes, wild trees and grass etc.
- The deep roots of the trees and bushes should be extracted.
- The land should thereafter be cleared and levelled.
- Higher patches should be scraped and filled into the depressions.
- The process of leveling the land is very very important as unless this is done, irrigation water will
- fill only the depressions and duty of water will be very slow.
- A small regular falling gradient should be provided to the field.
- The land should be properly plowed.
- The land should be divided into small suitable sized plots with the help of small earthen levees
- According to the method of irrigation to be adopted.
- Field channels should be made at the proper interval to facilitate proper distribution of water to the entire field.
- If there is a possibility of waterlogging proper drainage measures should be taken.