Sowing time, harvesting time, seed requirements, average yield and average water depth requirements, of most of the crops have been given in Table 5.2. Still some important crops require special mention which given here.

1. Wheat.

  • It is the main food cereal crop.
  • It forms main food for millions of people all over the world.
  • In India Indo-Gangetic plain is the main region where this crop is predominantly.
  • This crop is sometimes sown by mixing with barley, gram peas or linseed.
  • But in case of high yielding varieties it should be sown alone.
  • Sowing of this crop starts from mid-October and continues up to mid-November.
  • Harvest done from mid-March to mid-April. Common high yielding varieties of Wheat are Sharbati, Sonalika, Kalyan Sona, Sonara, C—273, C—281 etc.
  • This crop requires total water depth of 37.5 cm which is provid in each of 7–10 cm depth.

2.Paddy or Rice.

  • Like wheat, it is also a main food crop of millions of people.
  • It is grown,predominantly in Central, Eastern and Southern, parts of the country.
  • However, it is grown practically in all parts of our country.
  • The most suitable land is clayey loams to heavy clays.
  • High temperature and high humidity provide excellent conditions for its cultivation.
  • There are varieties that can be grown,throughout the year.
  • Early variety of rice is sown,in May to July and harvested in September–October.
  • The late or transplant variety July and harvested in November, Sabarmati, Padma, IR—8, and Taichoon are some of the high yielding varieties of rice.


  • It is the chief source of sugar and is consider one of the cash crops.
  • Since it occupies the field from February to December, practically for full year, it is also know perennial crop.
  • It covers both season of crop, i.e. Rabi and Kharif.
  • The soil which suits best for the growth of this crop is loamy and clayey loamy soils.
  • This crop is mainly Gangetic plains.
  • When grownheavier soils like clayey loams, proper drainage of the fields is very important.
  • Being long duration crop it requires thorough preparation of fields and an adequate amount of manures.
  • Ammonium sulphate chemical fertilizer is mostly used.

4. Cotton.

  • It is also a long duration crop of Kharif season.
  • It is a fibrous crop which mainly in textile industry and Khadi Gramodyog.
  • It occupies fields for about 8 months from April to December.
  • It is also a deep rooted crop which drives its food from large depths of say 0.5 mor so.
  • The average depth of water required for its growth in about 45 cm which is provided in form of 6–7 waterings each of depth of about 7.5 cm.
  • It is also a cash crop.

5. Gram.

  • It is a Rabi crop.
  • It requires very little water for its growth.
  • It can be grown in form of dry crop if one or two good rains take place in the season.
  • It is also a very important crop.
  • It is mostly grown in sandy or loamy soil.

6. Maize.

  • It is a coarse food cereal.
  • It grows on good well drained fertile loamy soils.
  • It can be grown both in tropical as well as in cold regions.
  • It requires more water in the early stage of its growth.
  • It requires green and compost manures in

7. Potato.

  • It is one of the subsidiary food crops.
  • It is grown best in moist cold regions.
  • It is sown either in form of cut pieces having 2 to 3 eyes or in form of whole tubers.
  • This crop is sown at the ridges of a furrowed field.
  • It gives its yield from below the surface level of the field.
  • It may give yield of about 500 quintals per hectare.
  • Great scott and Military special are its early varieties.
  • Kufri Kundan, Fulva and Darjeeling red, are its high yielding varieties.