COMPONENT PARTS OF A STORM HYDROGRAPH
- shows a hydrograph for any isolated duration of rainfall.
- A is the point from which hydrograph starts rising.
- The hydrograph continues to rise at a very steep rate till peak point B is reached.
- After this flood discharge starts receding.
- AB limb of the hydrograph is called rising limb and BD limbs as the receding limb.
- On limb BD, there is a point C known as point of inflection.
- It has already been stated in this article, that the hydrographs have three types of flows, over land flow (surface runoff), Interflow (influent streams or subsurface flow) and ground water flow.
- Overland flow and interflow are generally grouped together and this combined flow is known as Direct run-off. During floods the streams contribute ground water to the soil but during low water flows, streams derive most of its water from ground water.
- See Figs 6.14, 6.15 and 6.16. Direct run-off and ground water run-off in a particular hydrograph can be separated by the following methods:
- Extend the recession line of previous flow hydrograph to a point lying exactly on a vertical line drawn through
- The peak of the hydrograph i.e. point B of Fig. 6.17. Let this point be E.
- Select a point D on the recession limb of the present hydrograph N days after the peak. Join point E with D.
- The value of N in days can be found out as follows:
N = 0.826 A1/5
A = catchment area in sq. km.
- Thus AED (Fig. 6.17) is the dividing line between ground water and Direct runoff.
- The area ABCDEA represents the volume of direct run-off and area below line AED represents ground water.
- 2. Refer Fig. 6.17. The base flow is obtain by simply drawing a line.