CONSTRUCTION OF OPENS WELLS
Open wells may be constructed in following three ways:
- Kacha wells or wells having no lining,
- Wells having pervious lining and
- Lined wells.
1. Kacha Wells.
- These wells are of small depths and can be constructed in boulder or hard soils.
- They can be construct places where water table is very near to the surface of the ground.
- They can be only temporary source of irrigation water.
- They may collapse easily and thus sometimes prove very dangerous.
2. Wells having Pervious Lining.
- In this, the lining of the well is done in dry bricks or stones without using any mortar.
- The seeping water can enter the well through the open joints of dry masonry.
- Thus inflow in this case is radial and not axial. Such wells are generally plugged at the bottom by means of concrete.
- If bottom is not plugged, then water will be entering the well both, from bottom as axial flow and sides as radial flow.
- When such wells are constructed in fine sandy soil, the pervious lining is generally surrounded by gravel to act as vertical filter.
- This vertical filter prevents ingress of sand along with seeping water.
3. Lined Wells.
- In this case wells are line by stone or brick masonry or by cement concrete.
- For constructing such a well first of all a pit is excavate with the help of hand tools.
- The diameter of the pit is kept slightly larger in diameter than the finish diameter of the well.
- After the pit has been dug a kerb is lai at its bottom and masonry is raise over it.
- The masonry is raised above ground.
- Now earth is excavat and bailed out of well and masonry is simultaneously raised over lining wall projecting above the ground level.