1. What do you understand by the term spillway?
  2. How the spillways are broadly classifie? On what factors the discharging capacity of the spillway is fix.
  3. What are the functions of a spillway? Prepare a list of main spillways.
  4. Make a neat sketch of an Ogee type spillway and describe its working in brief.
  5. Why emergency spillway is installed? Is it made of earth or cement concrete?
  6. Explain the formation of a hydraulic jump. Derive the expression for height of hydraulic jump on D/S side.
  7. What are various methods of energy dissipation?
  8. Compare jump height curve with tail water curve and suggest the protective works which would be most effective for dissipation of excess energy of flowing water.
  9. Discribe various types of siphon spillways with the help of neat sketches.

10. Draw the sketches of

(i) Radial gates.

(ii) Vertical lift gates.

(iii) Needle gates.