DEVELOPMENT OF FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid mechanics is that branch of science which deals with the behaviour of the fluids at rest as well as in motion. In general the scope of fluid mechanics is very wide which includes the study of all liquids and gases. But usually it is confined to the study of liquids and those gases for which the effects due to compressibility may be neglected. The gases with appreciable compressibility effects are governed by the laws of Thermodynamics which are however dealt with under the subject of Gas dynamics. The problems, man encountered in the fields of water supply, irrigation, navigation and water power, resulted in the development of the fluid mechanics. However, with the exception of Archimedes (250 B.C.) Principle which is considered to be as true today as some 2250 years ago, little of the scant knowledge of the ancients appears in modern fluid mechanics. After the fall of…

Continue Reading DEVELOPMENT OF FLUID MECHANICS

Definition of fluid

Learn : Definition of fluid,liquid ,gas,vapour,ideal fluid,practical or real fluid,what is a fluid,what is a fluid give example,is liquid is fluid, what is fluid and its classification. DEFINITION OF  FLUID what is fluid and its classification A fluid may be defined as a substance which is capable of flowing. It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. Further even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied. A liquid A liquid is a fluid, which possesses a definite volume, which varies only slightly with temperature and pressure. Since under ordinary conditions liquids are difficult to compress, they may be for all practical purposes regarded as incompressible. It forms a free surface or an interface separating it from the atmosphere or any…

Continue Reading Definition of fluid

Various groups in which buildings are divided.

various groups in which buildings are divided,National Building Code of India.(SP:7-2005),residential,                               educational,institutional buildings etc various groups in which buildings are divided National Building Code of India (SP: 7–2005) defines the building as ‘any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundations, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandah, balcony cornice or projection, part of a building or any thing affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures’. Tents, shamianas and tarpaulin, shelters are not considered as building. According to the National Building Code of India (2005), buildings are classified, based on occupancy, as follows: Group A: Residential buildings Group B: Educational buildings Group…

Continue Reading Various groups in which buildings are divided.

Types of beam

https://youtu.be/y5tdxcy9FFALearn: Types of beam: in strength of material, Cantilever beam, Simply supported beams,  Overhanging beam, Fixed beams,and Continuous beam. The following are the Important types of beam Types of Beam 1. Cantilever beam,2. Simply supported beam,3. Overhanging beam,4. Fixed beams, and5. Continuous beam. 1. Cantilever beam A beam which is fixed at one end and free at the other end, is known as cantilever beam. Such beam is shown in Fig. cantilever beam 2. Simply Supported beam A beam supported or resting freely on the supports at its both ends, is known as simply supported beam. Such beam is shown in Fig.  Simply Supported beam 3. Overhanging Beam If the end portion of a beam is extended beyond the support, such beam is known as overhanging beam. Overhanging beam is shown in Fig. Over Hanging beam 4. Fixed Beam A beam whose both ends are fixed or built-in walls, is…

Continue Reading Types of beam

Civil engineering construction work

Learn : civil engineering construction work,civil engineering construction,engineering construction work,civil engineering,engineering construction Civil engineering construction work Civil engineering construction works: Civil engineers conceive, design, build, supervise, operate, construct and maintain infrastructure projects and systems in the public and private sector, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment. Civil engineering deals more with the design, planning and analysis of a construction project, while construction engineering is primarily on-site management of actual construction. The two different engineering degrees also qualify a person for different positions or engineering careers. [embedyt] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izi7VSyON20[/embedyt]

Continue Reading Civil engineering construction work

Stresses and strain

Learn Stresses and strain, unit of stress,Type of stresses,Tensile stress,Compressive stress,Tensile strain,compressive strain,Shear stress and shear strain Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. The external force acting on the body is called the load or force. The load is applied on the body while the stress is induced in the material of the body. A loaded member remains in equilibrium when the resistance offered by the member against the deformation and the applied load are equal. Mathematically stress is written as, \[σ = \frac{P}{ A }\] where σ = Stress (also called intensity of stress), P = External force or load, and A = Cross-sectional area. Strain When a body is subjected to some external force, there is some change of dimension of the body. The ratio of change of dimension of the body to the original dimension…

Continue Reading Stresses and strain

Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure

Learn : Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure, factored moment, ultimate moment of resistance, limiting moment of resistance factor, fixing dimension of the section, Area of tension steel.   Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure The design problem is generally of determining dimensions (cross-sectional) of a beam (b X D) and the area of steel for a known moment or load. The basic requirement for safety at the limit of collapse (flexure) is that the factored moment Msbecause of loads should not exceed the ultimate moment of resistance Mulim of the section and the failure should be ductile. 2188ed6a96dad6de04b0dfb5853df1bee74e3d92 therefore \[M_{u}\leq M_{u lim}\] Taking equality \[M_{u}= M_{u lim}\] \[=0.36f_{ck}.\frac {x_{umax}}{d}\left ( 1-\frac {0.42 x_{u max}}{d} \right )bd^{2}\] \[M_{u}=R_{u}bd^{2}\] For the given material i.e., grade of concrete and type of steel, Ru is constant and is called as limiting moment of resistance factor. \[R_{u}=0.36f_{ck}\frac {x_{u max}}{d}\left (…

Continue Reading Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure

Basic rules for design of beams

Learn About design of beams, effective span, effective depth, reinforcement, nominal cover to reinforcement, curtailment of tension reinforcement  BASIC RULES FOR DESIGN OF BEAMS While designing R.C.C. beams, following important rules must be kept in mind: Effective Span (CI. 22.2, IS 456) The effective span of the beams are taken as follows : (a) Simply Supported Beam or Slab The effective span of a simply supported beam or slab is taken as least of the following: (i) Clear span plus the effective depth of beam or slab. (ii)Centre to centre distance between supports. (b) Continuous Beam or Slab In case of continuous beam or slab if the width of the supports is less than \[\frac {1}{12} \]of the clear span, the effective span is taken as in (a). If the width of the support is greater than \[\frac {1}{12}\] of the clear span or 600 mm whichever is less, the…

Continue Reading Basic rules for design of beams

Density Index and relative compaction

Learn Density Index, relative compaction, density index and void ratio relationship,charectristics of granular soils in dense and loose states,Relative density Density Index The term density index ID or relative density or degree of density is used to express the relative compactness (or degree of compaction) of a natural cohesionless soil deposit. The density index is defined as the ratio of the difference between the voids ratio of the soil in its loosest state emax and its natural voids ratio e to the difference between the voids ratios in the loosest and densest states: \[I_{D} = \frac{e_{max}-e}{e_{max}-e_{min}}.                  (1)\] where emax = voids ratio in the loosest state emin = voids ratio in the densest state e = natural voids ratio of the deposit. This term is used for cohesionless soil only. This term is not applicable to cohesive soil because of uncertaintities in…

Continue Reading Density Index and relative compaction