Basics of Cement concrete

Basics of Cement concrete.    It get by mixing the following four ingredients in predetermined proportions. Cement.    Sand,   Gravel and   Water   Plastic mass  First Step – In a Concrete mixer when we mix the above four ingredients .   Second step – We get the plastic mass of concrete.  To get a desired shape of concrete we…

Meter and non meter fall
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Meter and non meter fall

METER AND NON-METER FALLS The falls may be divided into following two types: 1. Meter falls 2. Non-meter falls. 1. Meter Falls. The falls which can be used to measure the discharge flowing over them, are known as meter falls. Such falls must have broad crest so that the discharge coefficient remains constant under variable…

Canal Regulation Works
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Canal Regulation Works

INTRODUCTION To exercise control on discharge, full supply level, velocity of flow, silting etc. various masonry or concrete structures have to be constructed over the canals. All these structures are know Canal Regulation Works. Main Regulation works may be listed as follows: 1. Canal falls 2. Head regulator 3. Cross regulator 4. Metres and Flumes…

Elementor #5517

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CANAL FALLS
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CANAL FALLS

CANAL FALLS Why Falls are Provided When natural slope of the country is steeper than the designed longitudinal slope of the irrigation canal. The falls have to be provided. If falls are not provided, the canals run so much in filling. That it will be almost impossible to even construct the canals. If canal is…

Classification of falls
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Classification of falls

CLASSIFICATION OF FALLS The falls can be classified into the following four categories according to the approach conditions. 1. Falls which maintain relation between depth and discharge. 2. Falls which maintain level of U/S water constant. 3. Combination of fall and regulator. 4. Miscellaneous falls. 1. Falls in which D-Q relationship is maintained. In such…

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Type Membrane Lining

Buried and Protected type Membrane Lining These linings are such lining in which a waterproof thin membrane is place on the prepare subgrade. Thereafter it is covered by a protective layer of earth or gravel. The protective layer provides protection to the lining against damage due to outside effects. Membrane itself provides imperviousness. The commonly…

Lined Canals and Their Design
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Lined Canals and Their Design

INTRODUCTION Canal lining is a treatment given to the canal bed and banks, so as to render the canal section impervious. Since imperviousness of the canal section is achieved mostly by making canal section pucca. Either by cement concrete or bricks, the lined canals are also sometimes know pucca canals. Lined canals are mostly referred…

Essential properties of a good lining
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Essential properties of a good lining

ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF A GOOD LINING Following are the essential properties of a good lining: The lining should be completely water tight. The rugosity coefficient of the lining material should be low, so as to make the section more efficient, hydraulically. The lining should be strong and durable. Initial cost of lining and its subsequent…