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Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

Characteristics of inundation canals
CHARACTERISTICS OF INUNDATION CANALS

Characteristics of inundation canals

CHARACTERISTICS OF INUNDATION CANALS Inundation canals are mostly used in deltic and alluvial regions of the river. As river course here is generally at a higher level and the course is maintained between dykes or embankments. The section of the canal is not regular. The banks are not very strong and may breach if not properly looked after. These canals have longitudinal, slopes varying from 25 cm to as much as 1 m per kilometer length. Depth of the canal maybe 1.5 m to 3.5 m. Like regular canal system inundation canal system may also have the main canal and then smaller canals. The bed level of these canals should be kept at the most at the level of minimum water level in the river. Lower the bed level of the canal, more will be the time for which water will remain available. An inundation canal may be provided with…

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Inundation canal

INUNDATION CANALS Inundation canals are made under the following circumstances.  If river water level during floods remains high for a considerable length of time. If sufficient floodwater reaches the river in March or April, the flood water may be use to submerge the land, so that the Kharif crop could be sown. If flood water remains available say up to late September, the Kharif crops can irrigate up to this time and, even, areas may be submerg to sow early Rabi crops in October. Areas to be irrigate when in the vicinity of the river banks the inundation canals may serve the purpose of irrigation. When soil has good stabilizing power so the bed and banks of the canal remain stable. Inundation canals are more or less similar to permanent canals. The major difference is that, in the case of permanent canals, permanent masonry or concrete works. Like weirs, barrage,…

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Alignment of water courses

ALIGNMENT OF WATER COURSES Though the responsibility of maintenance of the water courses is that of farmers, still in new irrigation works. The alignment, of the water courses is fixed by the government. This work is being done these days by canal area development (C.A.D.) department or collonisation department. Following points should however be considered while fixing the alignment of water courses. Separate water courses should be provided for high lands and low lands of the same village. They should not cross through field but should be laid along the boundries of the fields. Sufficient water should be available to fields lying at the farthest point from the outlet. The water courses should be aligned along the ridges of the area of the village. If low lying area is near the outlet and high land is at the further end of the village. The water course which has to carry…

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Best questions of diversion head works

Draw a neat sketch of a diversion head work and name its various parts. Give brief explanation of each part. Explain the terms weir, barrage and dam. Point out the points of difference among, them. Enumerate various causes of failure of the weirs. Discuss each cause and suggest the remedies. Explain the various stages of river. Discuss the suitability of each stage in regard to the location of a diversion headworks. What are the points which should be considered while selecting the site for diversion headworks? Explain the Bligh’s creep theory for the design of impervious aprons on permeable foundations. What are limitations of this theory?  Expalin the Khosla’s findings which he conducts on the weirs that were designed according to Bligh’s theory but failed. Why some of the works designed according to Bligh’s theory did not fail while others failed? Explain Khosla’s method of independent variables. Explain the method…

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Classification of canals
CLASSIFICATION OF CANALS

Classification of canals

CANAL The canal is an artificial channel, usually trapezoidal in section. It is construct on the surface of the ground. It is use to convey water from the river, lake, reservoir, etc., to fields for irrigation, for water supply schemes, for power generating units, etc. They always flow under gravity. The canal may be Kucha or Pucca. Pucca canals are known as lined canals. CLASSIFICATION OF CANALS The canals can be classified in several ways. All the possible classifications are given as follows: 1. Classification based on financial output. Under this classification canals may be divided into two types: (i) Protective canal. (ii) Productive canal. (i) Protective canal. The purpose of a protective canal is to protect the areas most prone to famines. The canals are construct having all the permanent works required for their regulation. No discharge of water is left in them under normal conditions. But whenever famine…

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Considered during canal alignment

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE FIXING CANAL ALIGNMENT The following points should be considered while fixing the alignment of a canal: The canal should be straight. Such a canal would be minimum in length. Length being minimum losses due to percolation and evaporation are bound to be minimum. The canal should follow the ridge as far as possible. This will cause irritation of the areas lying on both sides of the canal. If somewhere a canal leaves the ridge, our effort should be to catch the ridge again as soon as possible. Cross-drainage works should be minimum, as such works are very costly. The canal should not pass through a village or town, but by the side of it. Canal taking off from a river is a contour canal for some length. Every effort should be made to mount if the main watershed, as soon as possible. Alignment should avoid…

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Effect of Diversion headwork

EFFECTS OF CONSTRUCTION OF DIVERSION HEADWORKS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF RIVERS Following are the changes that take place in the behavior of the river after the construction of a diversion headworks. The silt carrying capacity of river is decreased because heading up of water causes flattening of the surface slope on the U/S side of the weir. Because of reduction in silt carrying capacity, the pond formed on U/S side starts silting. Because of silting on U/S side, the water passing D/S of the weir contains less amount of silt. To make up for the deficiency of the silt, the D/S flowing water starts scouring the bed and banks. The scouring may lead to undermining the stability of the weir. Because of silting of the pond, the afflux goes on increasing and thus more and more areas on U/S are submerged. At last, a stage is reached when no more…

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Silt control at head regulator

SILT CONTROL AT HEAD REGULATOR Excess silt entering into the main canal has to be prevented by all the possible means. If excess silt gets to enter the main canal, it will cause silting of the whole canal system and ultimately. The capacity of the canal will be reduce. The silt entry into the main canal from a river can be controlled by the following measures. Divide wall in the river creates a quiet pocket behind the head regulator. The quiet pocket renders top layers of water silt free and only top layers of water are admitt into the canal. Provid raised crest for the head regulator. This measure automatically eliminates lower silt-laden layers of water. Providing a wide head regulator also causes less entry of silt into the canal. The entry of water into the canal should be smooth. Smooth entry does not cause any disturbance and as such…

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Regulation of head regulator
REGULATION OF HEAD REGULATOR

Regulation of head regulator

REGULATION OF HEAD REGULATOR In order to control silt entry into the canal, following two methods of regulation of a head regular may be adopted. Open flow regulation. Still pond regulation. Open flow regulation. In this method undersluices are kept open to pass the surplus river water D/S. Bottom layers of silt laden water are lead to under sluices and passed to the D/S. The top layers of water having comparatively less silt, are diverted to the canal. In this operation the pocket behind the undersluices remains clear of silt. Stilling pond Regulation. In this case a separate pocket is formed in the river and head regulator is fixed in this pocket. Only that much water is admitted in to the pocket as is required by the canal. The excess water remains passing D/S over the weir proper. In this case water, in the pocket is almost still. This pocket…

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Fish ladder
FISH LADDER

Fish ladder

FISH LADDER A fish ladder is a fish pass provide along the divider wall to enable migrating fishes to move from U/S to D/S and D/S to U/S direction, in different seasons. Fish ladders are provide on all such works which hinder their movements. The fish ladder is always locat along the divider wall as some water always remains here. The fish ladder consists of a rectangular trough having a sloping floor joining water levels on D/S and U/S of the weir. The difference in water level on the U/S and D/S sides of the weir is divide into several water steps with the help of a baffle   walls, constructed across the inclined floor. The slope of the fish ladder should not be steeper than 1: 10 so that velocity of flow in it does not exceed 2 m/sec. To exercise effective control on the flow through the fish…

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