## Stresses and strain

Learn Stresses and strain, unit of stress,Type of stresses,Tensile stress,Compressive stress,Tensile strain,compressive strain,Shear stress and shear strain Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. The external force acting on the body is called the load or force. The load is applied on the body …

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## Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure

Learn : Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure, factored moment, ultimate moment of resistance, limiting moment of resistance factor, fixing dimension of the section, Area of tension steel.   Design of singly reinforced rectangular section for flexure The design problem is generally of determining dimensions (cross-sectional) of a beam (b X D) and …

## Basic rules for design of beams

Learn About design of beams, effective span, effective depth, reinforcement, nominal cover to reinforcement, curtailment of tension reinforcement  BASIC RULES FOR DESIGN OF BEAMS While designing R.C.C. beams, following important rules must be kept in mind: Effective Span (CI. 22.2, IS 456) The effective span of the beams are taken as follows : (a) Simply …

## Density Index and relative compaction

Learn Density Index, relative compaction, density index and void ratio relationship,charectristics of granular soils in dense and loose states,Relative density Density Index The term density index ID or relative density or degree of density is used to express the relative compactness (or degree of compaction) of a natural cohesionless soil deposit. The density index is …

## Voids ratio porosity degree of saturation

Learn voids ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, percentage air voids, Air content Voids ratio. Voids ratio e of a given soil sample is the ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of soil solids in the given soil mass. $e= \frac{V_{v}}{V_{s}}$ Porosity. The porosity n of a given soil sample is the ratio …

## Absolute or true specific gravity

Learn specific gravity, Absolute or true specific gravity, Table of specific gravity of soil constituent Specific gravity  Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of soil solids at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at that temperature, both weights being taken in …

## unit weight of soil, bulk unit weight, dry unit weight, unit weight of solids

Learn unit weight of soil, bulk unit weight, dry unit weight, unit weight of solids, unit weight Unit weight of soil The unit weight of a soil mass is defined as its weight per unit volume. Bulk unit weight. The bulk weight or moist unit weight is the total weight W of a soil mass …

## Density of soil solids

Learn Density of soil, density of soil formula, density of soil definition, density of soil meaning, density of soil solids, bulk density, dry density, density of solids, saturated density, submerged density. Density of soil solids. The density of soil is defined as the mass of the soil per unit volume.  Bulk density. The bulk density …

## Water content formula of soil

Learn water content formula in a given mass of a soil  Water content formula . The water content formula w, also called the moisture content, is defined as the ratio of weight of water Ww to the weight of solids (Ws or Wd) in a given mass of soil. The water content  formula w is …

## Soil as a three phase system

A soil  as a three phase system consisting of solid particles (called soil grains), water and air. The void space between the soil grains is filled partly with water and partly with air. However, if we take a dry soil mass, the voids are filled with air only. In case of a perfectly saturated soil, …