# Civilengineering Subjects tutorial | Learn civil Engineering online

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial | Learn civil Engineering online

## Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

## Meter and non meter fall

METER AND NON-METER FALLS The falls may be divided into following two types: 1. Meter falls 2. Non-meter falls. 1. Meter Falls. The falls which can be used to measure the discharge flowing over them, are known as meter falls. Such falls must have broad crest so that the discharge coefficient remains constant under variable …

## Canal Regulation Works

INTRODUCTION To exercise control on discharge, full supply level, velocity of flow, silting etc. various masonry or concrete structures have to be constructed over the canals. All these structures are know Canal Regulation Works. Main Regulation works may be listed as follows: 1. Canal falls 2. Head regulator 3. Cross regulator 4. Metres and Flumes …

## CANAL FALLS

CANAL FALLS Why Falls are Provided When natural slope of the country is steeper than the designed longitudinal slope of the irrigation canal. The falls have to be provided. If falls are not provided, the canals run so much in filling. That it will be almost impossible to even construct the canals. If canal is …

## Classification of falls

CLASSIFICATION OF FALLS The falls can be classified into the following four categories according to the approach conditions. 1. Falls which maintain relation between depth and discharge. 2. Falls which maintain level of U/S water constant. 3. Combination of fall and regulator. 4. Miscellaneous falls. 1. Falls in which D-Q relationship is maintained. In such …

## Type Membrane Lining

Buried and Protected type Membrane Lining These linings are such lining in which a waterproof thin membrane is place on the prepare subgrade. Thereafter it is covered by a protective layer of earth or gravel. The protective layer provides protection to the lining against damage due to outside effects. Membrane itself provides imperviousness. The commonly …

## Lined Canals and Their Design

INTRODUCTION Canal lining is a treatment given to the canal bed and banks, so as to render the canal section impervious. Since imperviousness of the canal section is achieved mostly by making canal section pucca. Either by cement concrete or bricks, the lined canals are also sometimes know pucca canals. Lined canals are mostly referred …

## Essential properties of a good lining

ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF A GOOD LINING Following are the essential properties of a good lining: The lining should be completely water tight. The rugosity coefficient of the lining material should be low, so as to make the section more efficient, hydraulically. The lining should be strong and durable. Initial cost of lining and its subsequent …

## Design of lined canal

DESIGN OF LINED CANAL The design of line canals is always done by Kennedy’s Theory.. Following equations given by Kennedy are used in the design. $V0= 0.54mD^{0.64}$ $V= \frac{R^{2/3}S^{1/2}}{N}$ The value of N for protected type of linings is taken same as for natural soil. The value of N of natural soil varies from 0.02 …

## Standards of canal cross section

STANDARDS OF CANAL CROSS-SECTION Usual dimensions of canal cross-section elements have been given here and there inappropriate articles. The standards as suggest by CWPC are given as follows.   1. General. A trapezoidal section is recommended for the canal. The longitudinal slope of the canal is determined depending upon the average slope. The natural ground …