Vertical Stirrups

Types of shear reinforcement

Types of shear reinforcement : Vertical stirrups, Bent up bars along with stirrups, Inclined stirrups, contribution of bent up bars TYPES OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT The following three types of shear reinforcement are used : Vertical stirrups. Bent up bars along with stirrups. Inclined stirrups. Vertical Stirrups These are the steel bars vertically placed around the tensile reinforcement at suitable […]

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Effects of Shear Diagonal Tension

Learn : Effects of Shear  Diagonal Tension, maximum bending tensile stress, tensile stress (σ) as well as shear stress (τ),crack pattern for a simply supported beam,  The maximum bending moment in this beam will be at midspan and the maximum shear force, at the supports. EFFECTS OF SHEAR  DIAGONAL TENSION Consider a beam AB subjected […]

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Shear Stresses in R.C.C. beams

Shear Stresses in R.C.C. beam (Reinforced cement concrete beam), Stress Based Approach (Elastic Theory), IS Code Approach SHEAR STRESSES IN R.C.C. BEAMS Stress Based Approach (Elastic Theory) R.C.C. is a composite materials so the exact shear distribution as per elastic theory is very complex. It is shown in Fig. 5.2(b) by the hatched portion of the curve.It […]

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Characteristic Strength of Materials Characteristic Load or ultimate load

Learn : Characteristic Strength of Materials :Characteristic Strength of Concrete, Characteristic Strength of Steel. and Characteristic Load or ultimate load CHARACTERISTIC VALUES  (REFER CLAUSE 36, IS CODE) Characteristic Strength of Materials The characteristic strength is based on the statistical analysis of the test results because there are variations in the strength of the material used. In […]

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comparison of working stress method and limit state method

Learn : comparison of working stress method and limit state method, working stress method,Drawbacks of the working stress method, Limit state method :  Limit state of collapse, Limit state of serviceability. COMPARISON OF WORKING STRESS METHOD AND LIMIT STATE METHOD Working Stress method and Drawbacks of the working stress method Working Stress method This method of design […]

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Limit state concept

Learn : Limit state concept,Limit State of Collapse,Limit State of Serviceability Limit state is the acceptable limit of safety,serviceability requ.before failure. Limit state concept The aim of this method is that the structure should be able to withstand safely all the load that are liable to act on it throughout its life and it should […]

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Types of problem in T Beam | Working Stress Method

Learn : Types of problem in T Beam :  Procedure for Determining the Moment of Resistance of the Given Section in T beam,Find Stresses in Steel and Concrete in T beam,To design the section for given loads.Design of T beam TYPES OF PROBLEM IN T BEAM To determine the moment of resistance of the given […]

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Repainting wood work

Learn : Repainting wood work,Repainting Wood Furniture,Repainting Doors,Repainting Cabinetry,wood floors Repainting wood work (i)        If the old paint be unsightly, unsound, blistering or flaking off then it should be removed by the application of some paint remover, by scrapping or by burning the paint with a blow lamp. (ii)       On surface disfigured by smoke a coat […]

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Painting plastered surfaces

Learn : Painting plastered surfaces,New plastered surfaces Painting plastered surfaces (i)        A plastered surface should be painted only after it has thoroughly dried, otherwise the paint would get spoil. (ii)       To avoid sucking of paint by plaster soak the surface with a pore filling solution which will dry off leaving an impervious surface. A wash […]

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Painting new wood work

Learn : Painting new wood work : Knotting or killing the knot, Application of priming coat, Stopping, Application of finishing coats. Painting new wood work   Following points should be attended to before painting new wood work:   (i)        Only well seasoned timber should be painted otherwise not only shall the paint be spoilt but […]

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Removal of old paint and painting

Learn : Removal of old paint and painting : Remove the paint, old paint and painting Removal of old paint and painting REMOVAL OF OLD PAINT One of the following two methods could be employed to remove old paint from a surface : (i)        Burning the paint by directing the flame of a blow lamp on […]

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Preparation of oil paints

Learn :Preparation of oil paints Learn : Composition of oil paint PREPARATION OF OIL PAINTS. To get started making oil paint, you’ll need: 1) Cold-pressed, raw, or unrefined linseed oil – Linseed oil tends to do much of the heavy lifting in many oil based paint formulations. The reason is that unlike most plant based […]

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Characteristics of a good paint

Learn : Characteristics of a good paint,Paints, Paints Classification Characteristics of a good paint Paints Paints  are used to protect metals, timber or plastered surfaces from the corrosive effects of weather, heat, moisture or gases etc. and also to improve their appearance. Paints Classification Paints in common use are classified as oil paints, water paints, cement […]

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Composition of oil paints

Learn :Composition of oil paints: Base: White lead, Red lead, Zinc oxide (or zinc white), Iron Oxide, and metallic powders such as Aluminum, Copper and Bronze etc. are the commonly used bases,Vehicle: Oils most commonly used as vehicles are : Linseed oil, Poppy oil. Nut oil and Tung oil. Colouring pigments,Solvent or thinner,Drier,Inert filler Composition of […]

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Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)

SURKHI Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick) locally called surkhi is used as fine aggregate in lime mortar. Surkhi,Powdered broken brick shall be prepared by finely grinding well burnt good quality bricks free from under burnt particles of soluble salts, pyrites and adherent coatings of soil or silt. The maximum quantity of clay, fine silt and […]

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Analysis of T beam working stress method

Learn : Analysis of T beam working stress method : Neutral Axis is Within the Flange (n < Df), Neutral Axis Lies in the Web of the Beam (n >Df) ANALYSIS OF T BEAM Consider the section of a T-beam shown in Fig. 2.14 (a). The analysis of a T-beam comprises of following two cases […]

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T beams and terms used in T beams in Reinforced cement concrete

T beams and terms used in T beams : Breadth of Web (bw),Thickness of the Flange (Df),Overall Depth of the Beam (D),Effective Width of the Flange (bf),Effective width of the compression flange of the flanged beam in Reinforced cement concrete T beams and terms used in T beams in Reinforced cement concrete T BEAMS In RCC construction, […]

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Steel beam theory is used to find the MR of doubly reinforced beam

Steel beam theory is used to find the approximate value of the moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced beam specially when the area of compression steel is equal to or more than the area of the tensile steel. Steel beam theory moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced beam The moment of resistance of […]

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Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method

Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method: Determination of moment of resistance of the given section,Determination of actual stresses in concrete and steel,Design of the section. Types of problem in doubly reinforced beams working stress method Determination of moment of resistance of the given section. Determination of actual stresses in concrete and steel. […]

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Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam|Working stress method

Learn : Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam working stress method : modular ratio, Equivalent section,critical neutral axis, actual neutral axis, stresses in the section, moment of resistance. Analysis of a doubly reinforced beam working stress method  Modular Ratio (a)       Modular ratio for tensile steel is taken as m where     . (b)       Modular […]

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