Building construction:

Building Construction is an Engineering Science, which deals with the technique of construction of buildings.In Building construction, A building is de­fined as an enclosed space covered by a roof. Buildings in general can be classified into two categories viz. Public Buildings and Resident al Buildings. Public buildings are those which are primarily meant for the use of the general public, such as an office, a school, a college, a hospital, a cinema house, etc , whereas a residential building is only meant either for a single individual or group of individuals, such as an ordinary dwelling house or a bungalow. As far as techniques of construction are concerned, for an engineer both are the same.

In Building construction Every structure has two component parts. One is called; foundation and the other super-structure. Foundation is that part of the structure which is generally constructed below the ground level. It is often confused that foundation is constructed to take up the load of the structure or to support it.

Various groups in which buildings are divided.

various groups in which buildings are divided,National Building Code of India.(SP:7-2005),residential,                               educational,institutional buildings etc various groups in which buildings are divided National Building Code of India (SP: 7–2005) defines the building as ‘any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundations, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandah, balcony cornice or projection, part of a building or any thing affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space and signs and outdoor display structures’. Tents, shamianas and tarpaulin, shelters are not considered as building. According to the National Building Code of India (2005), buildings are classified, based on occupancy, as follows: Group A: Residential buildings Group B: Educational buildings Group…

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Advantage of cavity walls Precautions to be taken constructing cavity walls

In this Article Learn Cavity wall, Advantage of cavity walls Precautions to be taken while constructing cavity walls,bricks or metal,bonding bricks or metal Cavity walls A cavity wall is a double leaf wall having a cavity in between. The outer leaf is generally 10 cm thick and the inner leaf may be 10 cm or 20 cm thick with 5—8 cm wide cavity. The two leaves :are connected together with the help of bonding bricks or metal tie rods. The cavity is extended right upto the foundation concrete sometimes and then it is filled with cement concrete upto the ground .level. The cavity should be upto the roof-level. The bonding bricks or metal ties are placed at a distance of 1 m to 1'2 m horizontally and 60 cm—80 cm vertically in a staggered fashion. During the construction, care should be taken to see that mortar is not allowed to…

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Effects of dampness, sources of dampness, prevention of dampness

In this Article Learn Causes dampness, Effects of dampness, sources of dampness : Rising moisture of the ground,From the external walls,  Top of walls, Condensation, prevention of dampness Dampness One of the most important requirements .of a building is that it should remain dry, that is, damp proof. If this condition is not satisfied, it is likely that the building may become unhygienic to the inhabitants and unsafe from the structural point of view, because dampness breeds germs of certain diseases and disintegrates the structure. Effects of dampness The following are the effects of dampness : A damp building creates unhealthy conditions for the inhabitants. It disintegrates the structure. Unsightly patches, called efflorescence are formed on the surface of walls. Decay of timber takes place rapidly in the damp climate. Sources of Dampness The various causes which are responsible for causing dampness in a building are as follows : Rising…

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Retaining walls and Breast walls

Content of The Article : Retaining walls and Breast walls, Retaining walls,Retaining wall Terminology,Back fill,Back fill slope,Batter,Dowels,Footing, Footing key,Weep wholes, Grade, Heel, Horizontal temperature/shrinkage reinforcing, Keyway, Principal reinforcing, Retained height, Stem, Surcharge, Toe, Breast Walls. Retaining walls and Breast walls Retaining walls. The walls constructed for retaining or supporting earth against their back are called retaining walls. Earth cannot remain vertical but would be in a state of equilibrium when it assumes a natural angle which is called angle of repose. If it is desired to be retain the earth vertically, that portion of the earth will have to be supported by a wall called retaining wall. The back of the wall is in the form of steps and the face of the retaining wall may be either vertical or battered. The width at the base will depend upon the height of earth to be retained as the more the height,…

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Brick Masonry

Brick Masonry The art of construction in bricks is called brick masonry; Bricks are laid with cement mortar or lime mortar. In ordinary and inferior quality of works, mud mortar is also used. Brick masonry laid with cement mortar is stronger and more durable than that laid, with lime mortar. But lime mortar is very commonly used due to its low cost. Bricks are made in a range of varieties, each intended for a specific purpose, but all are created from some combination of sand, water, clay, and heat. Building brick, or common brick, is used in construction and is often "cored" with two rows of holes to save material and reduce weight. Face brick is chosen for visible surfaces or exposed walls and comes in different colors, sizes, and shapes. Firebrick is made with special clay to offer additional heat resistance in fireplaces or boiler rooms. Glazed brick is…

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Technical Terms in masonry

Technical Terms in masonry Back and Backing. The internal surface of the wall is called back and the material used on the back is called backing. Face and Facing. The outer or exposed face of the wall is called face and the material used on the face is called facing. Hearting and Filling. The interior portion of wall between the face and back is called hearting and filling. Prepeds. These are imaginary lines containing vertical joints of the masonry. Voids. These are spaces left between the blocks of stone in the masonry. Spalls. These are chips or stone pieces used for backing up or filling the interstices in stone masonry. String course. It is a horizontal projecting course of masonry, usually projecting from the face of the wall, intended to throw off rain water. It also gives architectural appearance and adds to the strength of the wall. Cornice. It is…

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Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry

Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry,Brick masonry,Stone masonry, Masonry is the art of the construction in brick or stone. Except in dry masonry some mortar is used to bind the bricks or blocks of stones, with each other. There are in general two types of masonry, viz., Brick Masonry and Stone masonry. Brick masonry is that in which bricks are used while in stone masonry, stone blocks are used.  Comparison of Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry Generally brick masonry is cheaper than stone masonry and can be easily constructed. The minimum, thickness of wall in stone masonry can be 35 cm whereas, in brick masonry, walls of 10 cm thickness can be constructed. The brick masonry construction proceeds very quickly whereas the stone masonry construction proceeds vary slowly, as the bricks are handy whereas stones are not. Skilled masons are required for stone masonry construc­tion, whereas unskilled laymen can…

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Layout of foundation plan

Layout of Foundation     Layout of foundation plan : After determining the width and depth of foundation, a drawing showing the width of foundations of various walls is prepared. It is known as foundation plan. To start the commencement of excavation, the centre line of one of the longest walls is just mark­ed out by stretching a string between two wooden pegs, driven at the ends. Now set out the centre lines of other walls, The reference to this wall.   The centre line perpendicular to the reference line, is marked on the ground by 3 : 4 : 5 method. Suppose AB is the refer­ence line. A line BC is to be marked as perpendicular to AB. Now set off a distance of 3 m (or three divisions of any length) on AB and take two strings of 4m and 5 m lengths, (or 4 and 5 divisions…

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Different types of foundations, which are generally used for structures

Content of this article : Types of foundations, Spread footing foundation, Benching or stepped foundation, Pile foundation, classification of piles foundation, Piles can be classified according to material-wooden piles,concrete piles,RCC piles, sheet piles,classification is based on the mode of working of the piles,(i) Bearing pills, and (ii) Friction piles.Raft foundation,Well foundation,Cassion's foundation,cantilever foundations,combined footing foundation,Inverted arch foundation,Grillage foundation. Types of Foundations The following are the different types of foundations, which are generally used for different structures : Spread footing foundation Benching or Stepped Foundation. Pile Foundation. Raft Foundation. Well Foundation. Caisson's Foundation. Cantilever Foundation. Combined Footing Foundation. Inverted Arch Foundation. Grillage Foundation. Spread footing foundation This is the simplest type of foundation and is generally used for ordinary build­ings on alluvial soils. This type of foundation can normally be used for three to four-storied buildings on common type of alluvial soils. The spread footing  consists of a concrete base, generally…

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Methods of Improving the Bearing Capacity of soils

Content of the article : methods of improving the bearing capacity of soils  Methods of Improving the Bearing Capacity of soils The bearing capacity of a soil mainly depends on the closeness of its particles. The bearing capacity of a soil can be increased by the following methods: By increasing the depth of foundation. The compactness of the foil increases as we go below the ground level. As the bearing capacity directly depends on the compactness of the soil, it will go on increasing as the depth of foundation is increased. By draining of the sub-soil under.  Water reduces the cohe­sive properties and hence reduces the bearing capacity of the soil. By draining off water from the sub-soil the bearing capacity of the soil is certainly increased. By compacting the soil.  If the soil is compacted thoroughly, the voids are decreased and bearing capacity is increased. By confining the soil…

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