Building material

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes.

Building material, fixtures, furnishings, equipment and devices used in the field of architecture, engineering and construction to create buildings and structures.

Many types of Building materials are used in the building construction and construction industry to create buildings and structures.

These categories of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for building projects.

Some building materials like cold rolled steel framing are considered modern methods of construction, over the traditionally slower methods like block work and timber. Many building materials have a variety of uses.

Repainting wood work
Repainting Doors

Repainting wood work

Learn : Repainting wood work,Repainting Wood Furniture,Repainting Doors,Repainting Cabinetry,wood floors Repainting wood work (i)        If the old paint be unsightly, unsound, blistering or flaking off then it should be removed by the application of some paint remover, by scrapping or by burning the paint with a blow lamp. (ii)       On surface disfigured by smoke a coat of one kilogram glue and 60 gms of unslaked lime in four kilograms of water should first be given. (iii)     The surface should be thoroughly cleaned by washing it with soap and water. All greasy spots should be painted with turpentine oil and washed with soap and water. A solution of washing soda in water is used for cleaning the surface of all greasy spots. (iv)      All holes and cracks etc. should be filled up with putty i.e. stopping should be done. (v)       Before the application of each coat the surface should be rubbed smooth…

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Painting plastered surfaces
New plastered surfaces

Painting plastered surfaces

Learn : Painting plastered surfaces,New plastered surfaces Painting plastered surfaces (i)        A plastered surface should be painted only after it has thoroughly dried, otherwise the paint would get spoil. (ii)       To avoid sucking of paint by plaster soak the surface with a pore filling solution which will dry off leaving an impervious surface. A wash of 1 kg of size, 500 gm of soft soap and 9 liters of creamy lime wash is recommended. (iii)     Cracks or holes, if any, should be filled in with glaziers putty and the surface sand papered on its drying. (iv)      First two coats should consists of white lead and boiled linseed oil. (v)       Third coat should consist of white lead, linseed oil, desired pigment and a little turpentine oil. This coat is applied after the surface has been rubbed smooth. Finishing coat having the same composition as the third coat but having more of…

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Painting new wood work
Painting new wood work

Painting new wood work

Learn : Painting new wood work : Knotting or killing the knot, Application of priming coat, Stopping, Application of finishing coats. Painting new wood work   Following points should be attended to before painting new wood work:   (i)        Only well seasoned timber should be painted otherwise not only shall the paint be spoilt but also due to dry rot the timber is likely to decay early. Also the paint surface will otherwise crack due to uneven shrinkage   (ii)       It is advisable not to paint excessively dry wood.   (iii)     Paint should be applied to only dry surface. (iv)      The surface to be painted should be rendered smooth, clean and free from rust or dirt. (v)       All nails should be punched in 1/2 cm below the surface. (vi)      Large and loose knots should be cut out and filled tightly with correctly fitting wooden pieces. (vii)    The surface should be…

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Removal of old paint and painting
Removal of old paint and painting

Removal of old paint and painting

Learn : Removal of old paint and painting : Remove the paint, old paint and painting Removal of old paint and painting REMOVAL OF OLD PAINT One of the following two methods could be employed to remove old paint from a surface : (i)        Burning the paint by directing the flame of a blow lamp on the painted surface and scrapping it. The method is quite suitable, quick and economical in case of iron or steel work but only expert workmen could be depended upon for its use in case of wood work. A little carelessness could leave the wood charred. (ii)       Applying any one of the following paint removers : (a)       Hot solution of equal parts of soap, potash and quick lime is applied on the surface and kept on it for 24 hours, after which washing with hot water will remove the paint. (b)       Two parts of quicklime and…

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Preparation of oil paints
Preparation of oil paints

Preparation of oil paints

Learn :Preparation of oil paints Learn : Composition of oil paint PREPARATION OF OIL PAINTS. To get started making oil paint, you’ll need: 1) Cold-pressed, raw, or unrefined linseed oil – Linseed oil tends to do much of the heavy lifting in many oil based paint formulations. The reason is that unlike most plant based oils, linseed oil is known as a drying oil. For example, if you were to spill some olive oil on your counter top, chances are it would still be wet to the touch many weeks later. Linseed oil is different in that if you were to spill some on your counter, it would dry to form a tough film within a few days. While you’ll be able to find linseed oil at most artist supply shops, you can also find it at the grocery store as flax seed oil. Despite what the fancy artist paint brands…

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Characteristics of a good paint
charecteristics of a paint,

Characteristics of a good paint

Learn : Characteristics of a good paint,Paints, Paints Classification Characteristics of a good paint Paints Paints  are used to protect metals, timber or plastered surfaces from the corrosive effects of weather, heat, moisture or gases etc. and also to improve their appearance. Paints Classification Paints in common use are classified as oil paints, water paints, cement paints and bituminous paints. There are some "special paints" used for special purposes e.g. heat resisting or fireproof paints, chlorinated rubber paints (for protection against acid fumes etc.) luminous paints (for visibility of painted surfaces in the dark) etc., etc. Characteristics Following are the Characteristics of a good paint:   (i)        It should have a good body or spreading power. (ii)       It should work smoothly and freely and be capable of being laid in a thin coat with the brush. (iii)     It should form durable, tough and resistant to wear film on drying.   (iv)     …

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Composition of oil paints
Composition of oil paints : Base,Vehicle,Drier,Colouring pigment,Thinner

Composition of oil paints

Learn :Composition of oil paints: Base: White lead, Red lead, Zinc oxide (or zinc white), Iron Oxide, and metallic powders such as Aluminum, Copper and Bronze etc. are the commonly used bases,Vehicle: Oils most commonly used as vehicles are : Linseed oil, Poppy oil. Nut oil and Tung oil. Colouring pigments,Solvent or thinner,Drier,Inert filler Composition of oil paints Oil paints consist essentially of – (i) a base, (ii) a vehicle (always an oil, generally raw or boiled linseed oil), and (iii) one or more colouring pigments. It may also contain one or more of (iv) a solvent or thinner, (v) a drier, and (vi) an inert filler. By suitable variation of the type and proportion of the various constituents the paints can be made dry, glossy or flat as desired. Other properties such as permeability to water could also be varied accordingly. All the possible constituents of paints are described in…

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Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)
Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)

Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick)

SURKHI Surkhi,Powdered broken brick (burnt brick) locally called surkhi is used as fine aggregate in lime mortar. Surkhi,Powdered broken brick shall be prepared by finely grinding well burnt good quality bricks free from under burnt particles of soluble salts, pyrites and adherent coatings of soil or silt. The maximum quantity of clay, fine silt and fine dust present shall not exceed five per cent by weight. Requirements for Broken Brick (surkhi) fine Aggregate for use in Lime Mortar FUNCTIONS OF SURKHI IN MORTAR Surkhi,Powdered broken brick is used as an adulterant but it imparts strength and hydraulic properties to the mortar. To develop more strength is should be ground very finely with lime in the mortar grinding mill. Surkhi mortar is a mixture of lime,surkhi and water. It is lime morta in which sand has been substituted by surkhi for economy and strength. Note:- surkhi is finely powdered burnt clay…

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Natural rubber,Treatments to improve and modify natural rubber properties

How To Learn rubber  : Natural Rubber(India Rubber),Treatments to improve and modify natural rubber properties,Reclaimed Rubber,Synthetic Rubber,Rubber flooring materials for general purposes RUBBER It is essentially an elastic material and is obtained both as natural and as synthetic material.  Natural Rubber (India Rubber). Natural rubber  is present as an emulsion in the latex of certain plants growing in Ceylon, Singapore, Malaya and Mexico etc. Latex is the milky colloidal fluid oozing from vertical grooves having an upward inclination cut around the trunk of the rubber trees. Pots are tied to the trunk of trees for collection of lates. Crude rubber is obtained from the latex by its coagulation with acetic acid, alcohol, alum or lime etc. Coagulation of latex is achieved even by heating. In certain cases the latex is mixed with appropriate compounding materials and then precipitated directly from the solution to the shapes required. More modern methods are…

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Thermocol Building material

 THERMOCOL Thermocol : It is the trade name of a very light and cellular plastic material. Initially it is obtained in liquid form and then molded into desired forms. it is an excellent insulating material of heat, sound and electricity. It is very light, strong and durable. It resists dampness. Its compressive strength is 117 to 144 kg/cm2. It can be manufactured in any color, though it is mostly white in color. It is very soft, can be easily swan, cut, broken and scratched with nails. Uses. It is used for heat and sound insulation in refrigeration and air conditioning buildings. It is used in acoustic treatment and lining of ceiling and walls. Thermocol is available in slabs 50×50, 60×60, 100×100, 50×100 cm and 15 to 25 mm thick. Thermocol is another name for Polystyrene, it's a synthetic aromatic (benzene derivative) polymer made from the monomer styrene (a monomer is…

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