Order of construction | Item of work |

Order of construction | Item of work | ITEMS OF WORK While preparing detailed estimate of a building it is necessary to split the entire building into different items preferably in the order of its construction. e.g. The load bearing structure to be constructed may be split into following items of work in the order of its execution as: Site clearance. Excavation for foundations. P. C. C. in foundations.  masonry in foundations.  C. R. masonary in plinth. Damp proof course at plinth level. Plinth filling with hard murum. Brick Work (or stone masonary) in Superstructure. Providing and fixing door and window frames. Lintels over openings. Flat R.C.C. or sloping roof. External and internal plastering and pointing. Providing and laying flooring. Door and Window shutters. Water supply and sanitary arrangement. Electrification. The quantities of the above items of work are calculated from the relevant drawings (i.e. plan, elevation, section and foundation…

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Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |
Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |

Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |

Learn : Types of estimates | Approximate Estimate | Detailed Estimate |Preliminary or Approximate or Rough Cost Estimate Plinth Area Estimate.Cubic Contents MethodApproximate Quantity MethodDetailed Estimate (or Item Rate Estimate Revised EstimateSupplementary EstimateSupplementary and Revised EstimateAnnual Repair (A.R) or Annual Maintenance (A.M.) TYPES OF ESTIMATES The estimates are broadly classified as (i) Approximate Estimates, and (ii) Detailed Estimates Before a detailed estimate of the proposed work is to be taken up, it is necessary to prepare its approximate estimate. An approximate estimate gives the approximate cost of the work and is prepared on the basis of cost of the similar works carried out in the past. Such an estimate is required to obtain administrative approval in case of Government works. Once the work is administratively approved by the Government, a detailed estimate is worked out. A detailed estimate is prepared after its complete set of drawings are ready. The quantities of various…

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 Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation
LEARN : Purpose of detailed estimate,Use of estimation,computing the quantities,purpose of estimate,use of estimate,what is estimate.purpose of estimating and costing,what is the use of estimating and costing,what is the Purpose and uses of Estimating and Costing

 Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation

LEARN : Purpose of detailed estimate,Use of estimation,computing the quantities,purpose of estimate,use of estimate,what is estimate.purpose of estimating and costing,what is the use of estimating and costing,what is the purpose of estimate,define purpose and uses of estimate Purposes of detailed estimate | The Use of estimation  Purposes of detailed estimate • In Government Organisation, a detailed estimate is required for obtaining technical sanction from the competent authorities for the proposed work. • A detailed estimate is also required for the preparation of contract (agreement) document. • The detailed estimates serve as a guide during the execution of the work. • It helps in computing the quantities of materials required and labour to be employed for the completion of various items of construction. • It is very useful in the efficient planning and programming of all activities required for the speedy completion of the work. • It enables to prepare bar-chart,…

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Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate
Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate

Estimating and Costing |Data required for preparation of estimate

LEARN : Estimating and costing,Data required for preparation of estimate,Definition of Estimating,Complete Set of Detailed Drawings,Specifications of Items of Works,Prevalent Rates of Items of Construction,Standard Mode of Measurement,Details of foundation strata likely to encounter.,The exact location of the work site.,The physical condition of the work site. Introduction to Estimating and Costing Before any engineering project is to be constructed, it is necessary to know its estimated cost to ascertain whether the required funds can be made available for its completion or not. If the funds available are more than the estimated cost of the work, the execution of the work can be started. If, however, the available funds are less than the estimated cost, then either the work may be executed in parts or its specification can be altered to bring down its cost within the available funds. The actual cost of construction (which will be known after its completion)…

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Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.
Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |points shall be noted while taking measurements. |Measurement|points shall be noted while taking measurements.|Methods of measurement|Measurement|Measurement of works| Measurement of civil engineering works occupies a very important place in planning and execution of works, right from the stage of preparation of estimate to the final completion of works and settlement of payment of the works to the contractors. There are some differences regarding the method of measurement among the State Government departments. But the method introduced by the Indian Standard (I.S.) is legal and basic document for removing ambiguities and settling all the disputes for making payment to the contractors. Following points shall be noted while taking measurements. 1. Each item shall be fully described. 2. The measurement shall be taken in the order of sequence of length, breadth or width and height or depth. 3. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest to 0.01 m. 4. Area shall…

Continue Reading Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.