Irrigation engineering

Irrigation engineering : in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. Estimates of total irrigated land in the world range from 543 to 618 million acres (220 to 250 million hectares), almost half of them in India, Pakistan, and China. The United States had almost 60 million acres (23.8 million hectares) of irrigated farmland in 1991.

In Irrigation engineering Methods of applying water include free-flooding of entire areas from canals and ditches; check-flooding, in which water flows over strips or checks of land between levees, or ridges; the furrow method, in which water runs between crop or tree rows, penetrating laterally to the roots; the surface-pipe method, in which water flows in movable slip-joint pipes; sprinklers, including large-scale center-pivot and other self-propelled systems; and a variety of water-conserving drip and trickle systems. In many cases irrigation is correlated with drainage

 to avoid soil salinity, leaching, and waterlogging. Irrigation may also involve preliminary clearing, smoothing, and grading of land. Especially in areas of high evaporation rates, intensive irrigation can result in excessive quantities of salts accumulating in the upper layers of the soil as water evaporates from the surface, rendering the soil unfit for crop production.

Since prehistoric times water has been diverted from waterways to fields by ditching. Early improvements for raising water included counterbalanced poles with attached water vessels, and adaptations of the wheel and of a pump called the Archimedes’ screw. The use of canals, dams, weirs, and reservoirs for the distribution, control, and storage of water was probably initiated in ancient Egypt. A system of gently sloping underground tunnels (qanats) to deliver water from a subterranean source to distant areas where it is accessed through shafts was developed in ancient Persia and has been widely used elsewhere. In modern times pumps have facilitated the use of underground as well as surface water, but overuse of water in aquifers can exhaust their usable water. Large-scale 20th-century irrigation projects commonly also include water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood control.

 

Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation
Suitability of soil for Irrigation

Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation

Learn: Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation,land suitability for irrigation,irrigation suitability,suitability of irrigation water,What is soil suitability SUITABILITY OF SOIL FOR IRRIGATION Particle size, compactness, the position of the water table, depth of soil, The presence of organic matter in the soil, are the usual aspects that influence the depth of available water in the root zone of the crops. Heavy soils like matiar and domat, can retain water for a considerable time. As such are considered suitable for growing crops that require a larger amount of irrigation water. Sugarcane, rice, wheat, etc. are such crops that can be grown in matiar soils. Baluar or sandy soils cannot retain water for a considerable time. Such soils are considered suitable for crops that do not require much irrigation water. Baluar soils being easily drainable, require frequent watering whereas matiar soils require watering at considerable intervals because they can retain water. Suitable soil…

Continue Reading Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation
Types of Indian Soils
Learn: Types of Indian Soil,different types of indian soils,Red Soils,Laterite Soils,Black Soils,Alluvial Soils,Sandy or Desert Soils,

Types of Indian Soils

Learn: Types of Indian Soil,different types of indian soils,Red Soils,Laterite Soils,Black Soils,Alluvial Soils,Sandy or Desert Soils, TYPES OF INDIAN SOILS From an agricultural point of view, the Indian soils may be classified into the following categories. 1. Red Soils. Red soils are light textured porous and friable soils. These soils are the residual soils left at the surface as a result of the decay of the underlying parent rocks. They conceal the parent rocks under themselves. Most red soils are sandy loam or sandy clay in texture. They are red in color and contain very low lime content. These soils are usually deficient in nutritional matters like nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, and organic matter. But they are very responsive to green manure, chemical fertilizer, animal dung manure, and irrigation. Such soils are found in the southern and central parts of India. They are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, South-east Maharashtra, Central…

Continue Reading Types of Indian Soils
Classification of Soils
Classification of Soil

Classification of Soils

Learn: Classification of Soils,Based on Age of Formation of Soil,Pan and Clay Pan,Classification Based on Salt Content,classification of soil structure The soils may be classified in the following ways. 1. Classification Based on Age of Formation of Soil According to this classification soils may be youthful soil, Mature soil and Senile soils, youthful soils are fully previous, whereas mature soils have low permeability. The senile soils become very hard and have very low permeability. Senile soil normally gives very little or no productivity. 2. Classification Based upon Geological Process of Formation Following soils are described under this classification: Alluvial soils. These soils are formed by the deposition of water-borne materials. It is a very fertile type of soil for crops. Residual soils. These soils are the resultant of the disintegration of rocks under various natural actions. Volcanic ash. These soils are formed by the deposition of Volcanic Ash from volcanic…

Continue Reading Classification of Soils

Physical properties of Soil to plants to maintain their growth.

Learn: Physical properties of soil to plants to maintain their growth., a layer of soil, define physical properties of soil, Physical properties of Soil of plants to maintain their growth Soil is a medium which provides support, nutrients and oxygen to the plants. Soils keep water stored and supply slowly to plants to maintain their growth. Soils also provide the necessary porosity which is essential for the growth of the plant. Large depths of soil do not carry any importance for an Agronomist. He is mainly concerned with the upper crust of the soil, which is primarily used for growing crops. This upper crest retains water and furnishes it for plant growth. The water retained in the upper crust is also termed as the belt of soil water. The depth of the belt of soil, water depends upon, the type of soil and vegetation. The depth of this belt may extend from…

Continue Reading Physical properties of Soil to plants to maintain their growth.
SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA
SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SAILENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA TOP 5 BIGGEST DAM IN INDIA https://civilengineering.blog/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Top-5-bBggest-Dam-in-India.mp4 Bhakra Dam Location: Across river Sutlej at the foot of Shivalik Hills in Himachal Pradesh Type: Straight gravity, concrete dam Length: 518 m  Max. Height: 226 m Reservoir: Gross Storage: 9867.8 M.cu.m Live storage: 7770.9 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 1.48 M.ha (In Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan) Power: Left bank 5 units of 90 MW each, Right bank 5 units of 120 MW each Nagarjunasagar Dam Location: Across river Krishna near Nandikonda village in Nalgonda district about 144 km from Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh Type: Stone masonry and earthen dam Length: Stone masonry: 1450 m, Earthen: 3414.6 m Max. Height: 124.7 m Reservoir: Gross storage: 11538.7 M.cu.m., Live storage: 6797 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 0.83 M.ha Rana Pratap Sagar Dam Location: Across river Chambal 51.5 km upstream of Kota Barrage and 56.33 km downstream of Gandhi Sagar Dam Type:…

Continue Reading SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

Trickle irrigation (also known as drip irrigation) system

Trickle Irrigation Trickle irrigation (also known as drip irrigation) system comprises main line (37.5 mm to 70 mm diameter pipe), submains (25 mm to 37.5 mm diameter pipe), laterals (6 mm to 8 mm diameter pipe), valves (to control the flow), drippers or emitters (to supply water to the plants), pressure gauges, water meters, filters (to remove all debris, sand and clay to reduce clogging of the emitters), pumps, fertiliser tanks, vacuum breakers, and pressure regulators. The drippers are designed to supply water at the desired rate (1 to 10 litres per hour) directly to the soil. Low pressure heads at the emitters are considered adequate as the soil capillary forces cause the emitted water to spread laterally and vertically. Flow is controlled manually or set to automatically either (i) deliver desired amount of water for a predetermined time, or (ii) supply water whenever soil moisture decreases to a predetermined…

Continue Reading Trickle irrigation (also known as drip irrigation) system

Sprinkler Irrigation and conditions are favourable for sprinkler irrigation

Sprinkler Irrigation Sprinkling irrigation is the method of applying water to the soil surface in the form of a spray which is somewhat similar to rain. In Sprinkling irrigation method, water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on the soil surface in a uniform pattern at a rate less than the infiltration rate of the soil. Sprinkling irrigation method started in the beginning of this century and was initially limited to nurseries and orchards. In the beginning, it was used in humid regions as a supplemental method of irrigation. Sprinkling irrigation method is popular in the developed countries and is gaining popularity in the developing countries too. Rotating sprinkler-head systems are commonly used for sprinkler irrigation. Each rotating sprinkler head applies water to a given area, size of which is governed by the nozzle size and the water pressure. Alternatively, perforated pipe can be used to deliver…

Continue Reading Sprinkler Irrigation and conditions are favourable for sprinkler irrigation

Subsurface irrigation or simply subirrigation method

Subsurface irrigation or simply subirrigation method Subsurface irrigation or simply subirrigation method is the practice of applying water to soils directly under the surface. Moisture reaches the plant roots through capillary action. The conditions which favour Subsurface irrigation or simply subirrigation method are as follows (i) Impervious subsoil at a depth of 2 metres or more, (ii) A very permeable subsoil, (iii) A permeable loam or sandy loam surface soil, (iv) Uniform topographic conditions, and (v) Moderate ground slopes. In Subsurface irrigation (or simply subirrigation) method, water is distributed in a series of ditches about 0.6 to 0.9 metre deep and 0.3 metre wide having vertical sides. These ditches are spaced 45 to 90 metres apart. Sometimes, when soil conditions are favourable for the production of cash crops (i.e., high-priced crops) on small areas, a pipe distribution system is placed in the soil well below the surface. This method of…

Continue Reading Subsurface irrigation or simply subirrigation method

Methods of irrigation surface irrigation

Methods of irrigation  surface irrigation Surface irrigation Uncontrolled flooding, Border strip,Check,Basin,Furrow method. In all the surface methods, Surface irrigation Uncontrolled flooding, Border strip,Check,Basin,Furrow method. of irrigation, water is either ponded on the soil or allowed to flow continuously over the soil surface for the duration of irrigation. Although surface irrigation, Surface irrigation Uncontrolled flooding, Border strip,Check,Basin,Furrow method. is the oldest and most common method of irrigation, it does not result in high levels of performance. This is mainly because of uncertain infiltration rates which are affected by year-to-year changes in the cropping pattern, cultivation practices, climatic factors, and many other factors. As a result, correct estimation of irrigation efficiency of surface irrigation is difficult. Application efficiencies for surface methods may range from about 40 to 80 per cent. (i) Surface irrigation which includes the following: (a) Uncontrolled (or wild or free) flooding method, (b) Border strip method, (c) Check method, (d)…

Continue Reading Methods of irrigation surface irrigation

Methods of Irrigation and its subsystems

METHODS OF IRRIGATION Methods of Irrigation and its subsystems Any irrigation system or Methods of Irrigation and its subsystems would consist of the following four subsystems : (i) The water supply subsystem which may include diversion from rivers or surface ponds or pumped flow of ground water. (ii) The water delivery subsystem which will include canals, branches, and hydraulic structures on these. (iii) The water use subsystems, which can be one of the four main types, namely, (a) surface irrigation, (b) subsurface irrigation, (c) sprinkler irrigation, and (d) trickle irrigation. (iv) The water removal system i.e., the drainage system. In this section, the water use subsystems have been described. Water Use Subsystems Irrigation water can be applied to croplands using one of the following irrigation methods : (i) Surface irrigation which includes the following: (a) Uncontrolled (or wild or free) flooding method, (b) Border strip method, (c) Check method, (d) Basin…

Continue Reading Methods of Irrigation and its subsystems