Irrigation engineering

Irrigation engineering : in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. Estimates of total irrigated land in the world range from 543 to 618 million acres (220 to 250 million hectares), almost half of them in India, Pakistan, and China. The United States had almost 60 million acres (23.8 million hectares) of irrigated farmland in 1991.

In Irrigation engineering Methods of applying water include free-flooding of entire areas from canals and ditches; check-flooding, in which water flows over strips or checks of land between levees, or ridges; the furrow method, in which water runs between crop or tree rows, penetrating laterally to the roots; the surface-pipe method, in which water flows in movable slip-joint pipes; sprinklers, including large-scale center-pivot and other self-propelled systems; and a variety of water-conserving drip and trickle systems. In many cases irrigation is correlated with drainage

 to avoid soil salinity, leaching, and waterlogging. Irrigation may also involve preliminary clearing, smoothing, and grading of land. Especially in areas of high evaporation rates, intensive irrigation can result in excessive quantities of salts accumulating in the upper layers of the soil as water evaporates from the surface, rendering the soil unfit for crop production.

Since prehistoric times water has been diverted from waterways to fields by ditching. Early improvements for raising water included counterbalanced poles with attached water vessels, and adaptations of the wheel and of a pump called the Archimedes’ screw. The use of canals, dams, weirs, and reservoirs for the distribution, control, and storage of water was probably initiated in ancient Egypt. A system of gently sloping underground tunnels (qanats) to deliver water from a subterranean source to distant areas where it is accessed through shafts was developed in ancient Persia and has been widely used elsewhere. In modern times pumps have facilitated the use of underground as well as surface water, but overuse of water in aquifers can exhaust their usable water. Large-scale 20th-century irrigation projects commonly also include water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood control.

 

FACTORS AFFECTING DUTY
FACTORS AFFECTING DUTY AND METHODS

FACTORS AFFECTING DUTY

FACTORS AFFECTING DUTY The duty of water depends upon following factors. 1. Soil characteristics through which canal runs. If canal is unlined and soil through which it flows is coarse grained. Seepage and percolation losses will be too much and duty of water will be reduced. If on the other hand canal is either lined or runs through fine grained soil. The losses will be considerably small and duty of water will be more. 2. Soil characteristic of fields. If soil of the field is deep coarse grained, percolation losses will be more. If, however, a hard pan is present at a depth of 1 or 2 m. The percolation losses will be less and duty will be more. 3. Undulated fields. If fields which are to be irrigated are quite undulated, the duty of water will be less. Lower portions are filled with more water whereas higher portions get…

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WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS
WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS

WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS

WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS The subject of water requirements for crops is of direct significance wherever irrigation is practiced. The areas may be divided into three categories namely— arid region, semi-arid region, and humid region. Growing of crops in arid regions is almost impossible without irrigation as rainfall in this region is very rare. In semi-arid regions irrigation may be optional but crops like sugar cane, vegetables, rice, etc. requiring more of water can only be grown by irrigation. In humid regions, irrigation plays a protective role against possible failure or deficiency of rainfall during the crop season.   The water requirement of a particular crop does not remain uniform in different areas. It varies according to variation in climate, rainfall, and type of soil. India is a very large country with having a lot of variation in its different areas as regards rainfall and type of soil. Hence water…

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METHODS OF IMPROVING FERTILITY OF LAND
METHODS OF IMPROVING FERTILITY OF LAND

METHODS OF IMPROVING FERTILITY OF LAND

Learn: Methods of improving the fertility of the land, Organic manure, Chemical manure, Green manure, Leaching method, craping the saltish crust, Surface drainage. METHODS OF IMPROVING FERTILITY OF LAND If deficiencies of any land are made good it becomes suitable for growing crops. If the land is too clayey it can be improved by adding sand to it. Similarly, sandy soils can be improved by adding a suitable amount of clay to it. Soils can be improved as regards its fertility by adding: Organic manure; Chemical manure; Green manure. Cowdung manure is organic manure. It is available in the village in large amounts, as every villager maintains animals. All the manures manufactured by large companies are chemical manures. Superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate, are the forms of chemical manures. Green manure is developed by sowing some crops in the field. When crop becomes about 10-20 cm high It is plowed in…

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Harmful salts in soils
Harmful Salts In Soils

Harmful salts in soils

Learn: Harmful Salts In Soils,effect of pH Value HARMFUL SALTS IN SOILS If the amount of harmful salts becomes excessive in the soil no crop can be grown over it. Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, etc. are some of the harmful salts. But of these, sodium carbonate which is also known as white salt is considered to be the most harmful. If the percentage of harmful salts reaches 0.15 percent it affects the production and if this percentage reaches 0.25 percent it renders the land completely barren. Other salts are also present in the soil but unless their percentage crosses the limit they do not affect the growth of the crops. EFFECT OF pH VALUE The pH value of the soil suitable for crops should lie between 6.0 and 8.5. If pH value exceeds 10.5 the land becomes completely unsuitable for crops.  

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Presence Of Water In Soil
Presence Of Water In Soil

Presence Of Water In Soil

PRESENCE OF WATER IN SOIL Water present in the soil may be classified under three heads: Hygroscopic water, Capillary water, Gravitational water. 1.Hygroscopic Water. When a soil sample after having been completely dried in an oven is put in an open atmosphere, It absorbs some amount of water from it. The amount of water so absorbed by the oven-dried soil sample is termed as hygroscopic water. This water is not capable of any movement by the action of gravity force or capillary force. The amount of this water in the soil can vary only if there is a change in the moisture content in the atmosphere. This water is not available for plant growth. 2. Capillary Water. This water is that water content in soil excess of hygroscopic water, which exists in the pore space of the soil, due to molecular attraction. This water is held in the form of…

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Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation
Suitability of soil for Irrigation

Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation

Learn: Suitability Of Soil For Irrigation,land suitability for irrigation,irrigation suitability,suitability of irrigation water,What is soil suitability SUITABILITY OF SOIL FOR IRRIGATION Particle size, compactness, the position of the water table, depth of soil, The presence of organic matter in the soil, are the usual aspects that influence the depth of available water in the root zone of the crops. Heavy soils like matiar and domat, can retain water for a considerable time. As such are considered suitable for growing crops that require a larger amount of irrigation water. Sugarcane, rice, wheat, etc. are such crops that can be grown in matiar soils. Baluar or sandy soils cannot retain water for a considerable time. Such soils are considered suitable for crops that do not require much irrigation water. Baluar soils being easily drainable, require frequent watering whereas matiar soils require watering at considerable intervals because they can retain water. Suitable soil…

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Types of Indian Soils
Learn: Types of Indian Soil,different types of indian soils,Red Soils,Laterite Soils,Black Soils,Alluvial Soils,Sandy or Desert Soils,

Types of Indian Soils

Learn: Types of Indian Soil,different types of indian soils,Red Soils,Laterite Soils,Black Soils,Alluvial Soils,Sandy or Desert Soils, TYPES OF INDIAN SOILS From an agricultural point of view, the Indian soils may be classified into the following categories. 1. Red Soils. Red soils are light textured porous and friable soils. These soils are the residual soils left at the surface as a result of the decay of the underlying parent rocks. They conceal the parent rocks under themselves. Most red soils are sandy loam or sandy clay in texture. They are red in color and contain very low lime content. These soils are usually deficient in nutritional matters like nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, and organic matter. But they are very responsive to green manure, chemical fertilizer, animal dung manure, and irrigation. Such soils are found in the southern and central parts of India. They are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, South-east Maharashtra, Central…

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Classification of Soils
Classification of Soil

Classification of Soils

Learn: Classification of Soils,Based on Age of Formation of Soil,Pan and Clay Pan,Classification Based on Salt Content,classification of soil structure The soils may be classified in the following ways. 1. Classification Based on Age of Formation of Soil According to this classification soils may be youthful soil, Mature soil and Senile soils, youthful soils are fully previous, whereas mature soils have low permeability. The senile soils become very hard and have very low permeability. Senile soil normally gives very little or no productivity. 2. Classification Based upon Geological Process of Formation Following soils are described under this classification: Alluvial soils. These soils are formed by the deposition of water-borne materials. It is a very fertile type of soil for crops. Residual soils. These soils are the resultant of the disintegration of rocks under various natural actions. Volcanic ash. These soils are formed by the deposition of Volcanic Ash from volcanic…

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Physical properties of Soil to plants to maintain their growth.

Learn: Physical properties of soil to plants to maintain their growth., a layer of soil, define physical properties of soil, Physical properties of Soil of plants to maintain their growth Soil is a medium which provides support, nutrients and oxygen to the plants. Soils keep water stored and supply slowly to plants to maintain their growth. Soils also provide the necessary porosity which is essential for the growth of the plant. Large depths of soil do not carry any importance for an Agronomist. He is mainly concerned with the upper crust of the soil, which is primarily used for growing crops. This upper crest retains water and furnishes it for plant growth. The water retained in the upper crust is also termed as the belt of soil water. The depth of the belt of soil, water depends upon, the type of soil and vegetation. The depth of this belt may extend from…

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SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA
SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SALIENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA

SAILENT FEATURES OF IMPORTANT DAMS OF INDIA TOP 5 BIGGEST DAM IN INDIA https://civilengineering.blog/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Top-5-bBggest-Dam-in-India.mp4 Bhakra Dam Location: Across river Sutlej at the foot of Shivalik Hills in Himachal Pradesh Type: Straight gravity, concrete dam Length: 518 m  Max. Height: 226 m Reservoir: Gross Storage: 9867.8 M.cu.m Live storage: 7770.9 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 1.48 M.ha (In Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan) Power: Left bank 5 units of 90 MW each, Right bank 5 units of 120 MW each Nagarjunasagar Dam Location: Across river Krishna near Nandikonda village in Nalgonda district about 144 km from Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh Type: Stone masonry and earthen dam Length: Stone masonry: 1450 m, Earthen: 3414.6 m Max. Height: 124.7 m Reservoir: Gross storage: 11538.7 M.cu.m., Live storage: 6797 M.cu.m Benefit: Irrigation: 0.83 M.ha Rana Pratap Sagar Dam Location: Across river Chambal 51.5 km upstream of Kota Barrage and 56.33 km downstream of Gandhi Sagar Dam Type:…

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