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Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

Equivalent and effective Lengths of Columns

The effective column length can be defined as the length of an equivalent pin-ended column having the same load-carrying capacity as the member under consideration.The smaller the effective length of a particular column,the smaller its danger of lateral buckling and the greater its load carrying capacity. It must be recognized that column ends in practice are neither perfectly fixed nor perfectly hinged. The designer may have to interpolate between the theoretical values given, to obtain a sensible approximation to actual restraint conditions.   Equivalent Lengths of Columns for Various End Conditions S.No. Type Effective Length of member I 1. Effectively held in position and restrained in direction at both ends. 0.67L 2. Effectively held in position at both ends and restrained in direction at one end. 0.85L 3. Effectively held in position at both ends but not restrained in direction L 4. Effectively held in position and restrained in direction…

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Definition and object of Surveying and levelling

Definition and object of Surveying and levelling Learn Surveying, definition of surveying,Definition of levelling, Object of Surveying Definition of Surveying Surveying is the art of determining the relative positions of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation. It also includes the art of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. The application of surveying requires skill as well as the knowledge of mathematics, physics, and to some extent, astronomy. Definition of Levelling Levelling is a branch of surveying the object of which is (i) to find the elevations of points with respect to a given or assumed datum, and (ii) to establish points at a given elevation or at different elevations with respect to a given or assumed datum. The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while the second…

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FUNCTIONS AND TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS

Learn FUNCTIONS AND TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS,foundation,types of foundation,spread foundation,pile foundation,friction pile,end bearing pile Foundation The lowest part of a structure which transmits the weight of the structure together with live loads, seismic and wind pressure to the ground surface on which the structure rests, ensuring its safe bearing capacity, is called foundation. To increase the stability of the structure, foundations are generally placed below the ground level. Functions of Foundations Following are the main functions of foundations : To transmit and distribute the total load of the struc­ture to a larger area of underlying support. To prevent differential settlement of the structure. To provide stability to the structure. Types of Foundations The following are the main types of foundations : Spread Foundations. The total load of the structure transmitted to the base of the structure is spread over a large area by a spread foundation. The width of the wall…

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GROWTH OF TIMBER TREE AND ITS STRUCTURE

In This article Learn growth of timber,timber,sap wood,annual rings,cambium layer,uses of timber,classification of trees,growth of timber tree and its structure. TIMBER    DEFINITION Wood suitable for building or other engineering purposes is called timber. When it forms part of a living tree it is called standing timber. When the tree has been felled it is called rough timber. When it has been sawn to various market forms such as beams, battens and planks etc., it is called converted timber.     USES OF TMBER Timber is used for the following categories of works : (i)        For construction purposes, including building construction, houseposts, beams, rafters, bridges, piles, poles and railway sleepers etc. (ii)       For furniture and cabinet making. (iii)     For light packing cases. (iv)      For heavy packing cases (for machinery and similar stores). (v)       For manufacturing agricultural implements and tool handles. (vi)      For making turnery articles and toys etc. (vii)    For…

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SEASONING OF TIMBER AND ITS METHOD

In this article learn seasoning of timber,air seasoning or natural seasoning,kiln seasoning or artificial seasoning,object of seasoning,methods of stacking, seasoning methods, Preventing drying of logs,comparison of air seasoning and kiln seasoning. SEASONING OF TIMBER Newly felled tree contains a considerable quantity of sap. If this sap is not removed the timber is likely to warp, crack and shrink. It may even decay. The art of seasoning of timber is to extract the moisture under controlled conditions as nearly as possible at a uniform rate from all parts of timber and to leave the remaining moisture, that cannot be extracted, uniformly distributed throughout the mass. Irregular drying will cause irregular shrinkage resulting in the setting up of internal stresses between the fibres. When these stresses become strong enough to overcome the cohesion of the fibres then the timber warps and shakes are formed.  Objects of seasoning. (i) Wet timber is an…

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Workability of concrete and Compaction factor test.

In this article Learn : Workability of concrete and Compaction factor test. WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE It is the amount of work required to place concrete and to compact it thoroughly. Workability of concrete increases with the addition of water but it reduces the strength and as such it is not a very desirable way of increasing the workability. Use of aggregates which are round and have smooth surfaces increases the workability. Keeping the cement, aggregates ratio the same if the quantity of coarse aggregate is increased then the workability improves. Workability could also be improved by adding Air-entraining agents such as Vinsol resin or Darex etc. Use of Lisapole liquid at the rat of 30 c.c. per bag of cement improves not only the workability but also the water tightness of concrete. Slump test gives an idea of only the flowing property of wet concrete and not of the workability.…

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Water cement ratio and slump test

In this article Learn : Water cement ratio and slump test Water cement ratio : It is the ratio of water and cement (by weight or by volume) used in the preparation of concrete. The quantity of water used in mixing concrete is very important. If the percentage of water used is less then there shall not be sufficient quantity of water to hydrate cement. It shall result in porous and weak concrete. However, the usual tendency is to use too much water which gives a more workable mix but it does not give sound concrete. Too much of water results in segregation of aggregates and gives porous concrete of low strength and low density. (Fig. 8.1.).   A certain minimum proportion of water is necessary in order to hydrate the cement completely. To make the concrete sufficiently workable to be placed in position some more water is needed. So…

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CEMENT CONCRETE AND ITS INGREDIENTS

In this article Learn : cement concrete,cement concrete ingredients, selection of material,cement, fine aggregate,coarse aggregate,water,Batching of ingredients by weight and by volume mixing, placing of concrete CEMENT CONCRETE It is a composite material where in a paste of cement, made with water, on solidification binds firmly together the various particles of inert materials like sand and stone ballast. The inert material called "aggregate" is well graded in size from fine sand to pebbles or stone ballast or brick ballast. Cement concrete is an extremely versatile material of construction which is used for a variety of works ranging from small cottages to massive dams and bridges. Cement concrete is quite strong in compression but not so in tension. To make good this deficiency of concrete steel bars (reinforcement) are embedded in concrete. The concrete then is known as reinforced concrete. The four materials go to make cement concrete : (i) Cement…

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Bending moment and shear force diagram of a cantilever beam

In this article Learn :cantilever beam Bending moment diagram B.M.D. and shear force diagram S.F.D. of a cantilever beam having point load at the end,several point loads,U.D.L. Over Whole Span ,U.D.L. not over the whole span,U.D.L. from support to some distance,U.D.L. Somewhere on the beam,Combination of Point Loads and U.D.L. BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAMS OF A CANTILEVER BEAM A shear force diagram is the graphical representation of the variation of shear force along the length of the beam and is abbreviated as S.F.D. A bending moment diagram is the graphical representation of the variation of he bending moment along the length of the beam and is abbreviated as B.M.D. We will take different cases of beams and loading for plotting S.F. D and B.M.D. Cantilever : Point Load at the End (Fig. 3.8) At section x from the end A, Fx = - W1 and is constant for…

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