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Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

Speed run off evaporation & transpiration
PRECIPITATION, RUN-OFF, EVAPORATION AND TRANSPIRATION

Speed run off evaporation & transpiration

PRECIPITATION, RUN-OFF, EVAPORATION AND TRANSPIRATION The fall of moisture or water over the surface of the earth from atmosphere is knon precipitation. Precipitation includes rainfall, snow, hail, sleet, and frozen water in any form. Evaporation. Itis loss of water from surfaces of oceans, rivers, lakes, and moist soils. The water lost by evaporation is in form of vapours and is form of clouds. Transpiration. It is the process by which water leaves of the plants. Sometimes combined loss of water by evaporation and transpiration is referredas total evaporation of water. Run-off. Unevaporated portion of precipitation is known as run-off. A part of precipitation water that falls on the surface gets evaporate and transpiratedan remaining partis call run-off. Run-off water ultimately runs to the ocean through surface and sub-surface streams of water. Water, flowing on the land is know surface run-off. This water first reaches the streams and river, and then…

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MAIN CROPS
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MAIN CROPS

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MAIN CROPS

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MAIN CROPS Sowing time, harvesting time, seed requirements, average yield and average water depth requirements, of most of the crops have been given in Table 5.2. Still some important crops require special mention which given here. 1. Wheat. It is the main food cereal crop. It forms main food for millions of people all over the world. In India Indo-Gangetic plain is the main region where this crop is predominantly. This crop is sometimes sown by mixing with barley, gram peas or linseed. But in case of high yielding varieties it should be sown alone. Sowing of this crop starts from mid-October and continues up to mid-November. Harvest done from mid-March to mid-April. Common high yielding varieties of Wheat are Sharbati, Sonalika, Kalyan Sona, Sonara, C—273, C—281 etc. This crop requires total water depth of 37.5 cm which is provid in each of 7–10 cm depth. 2.Paddy…

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Principal Crop Seasons
PRINCIPAL CROP SEASONS

Principal Crop Seasons

PRINCIPAL CROP SEASONS Agriculturally the year may be divid into two principal seasons namely Rabi and Kharif. Rabi Season. In North India this season known as Hari season. Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard, Peas etc. are the main Rabi crops. Sowing of these crops is done in autumn and harvesting in springs. Usual sowing time of these crops starts from middle of October and ends at the end of November. Harvesting time of these crops starts from 15th March and ends by 15th April. Sowing and harvesting times may vary slightly depending upon the crop and local climatic conditions. Kharif Season. This reason in also known as Sawni season. Cotton, Millets, Paddy, Groundnut etc. are the main Kharif crops. Kharif crops sown from 15 March and onwards say up to beginning of May. Harvesting of these crops starts from middle of October and continues up to the end of November. Harvesting…

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Wet and Dry crops
WET AND DRY CROPS

Wet and Dry crops

WET AND DRY CROPS Based upon the uses of irrigation water, the crops can be classified as wet crops and dry crops. Wet Crops. Wet crops are those crops which require irrigation water. Dry Crops. These are such crops which do not require irrigation water. All the crops require moisture to maintain their growth. Some crops require less amount of water while others more quantity of water. Any crop may be dry crop or wet crop. It all depends upon the rainfall and water requirements of the crops. If rainfall is causal then only such crops should be sown as dry crops which require comparatively less amount of water. If rainfall is quite enough for ordinary cereal crops they can be sow dry crops. The same crops which can be soar as dry crop in moderate rainfall region can be soar as wet crop in areas of scanty rainfall. The…

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METHODS OF SURFACE IRRIGATION
METHODS OF SURFACE IRRIGATION

METHODS OF SURFACE IRRIGATION

METHODS OF SURFACE IRRIGATION Following are the methods of surface irrigation: Wild or uncontrolled flooding. Free flooding. Contour laterals. Border strip method. Check flooding method. Basin flooding method. Zigzag method. Furrowed method. All these methods have been explained one by one. 1. Wild or Uncontrolled Flooding. In this method water is applie to rather unprepared fields without exercising any control on the direction of spread of water. No levees are generally made to guide the spread of water 2. Free Flooding. This method is a somewhat improve method than wild or uncontrolled flooding method. This method is mainly adopted where fields have not been properly prepared and field soil is so hard That it will allow very small amount of water to be absorbed by top soil before flooding water gets evaporated. allowed to flood or spread on whole of the field so as to give time to the soil…

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Methods of irrigation & their efficiencies
Modern Methods of Irrigation

Methods of irrigation & their efficiencies

BOARD CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF IRRIGATION AND THEIR EFFICIENCIES Methods of irrigation cab are broadly classified under three headings as follows: Surface irrigation methods. Spray or sprinkler irrigation. Sub-soil methods of irrigation. In surface irrigation methods, irrigation water is sprea sheet on the surface of the fields to be irrigate. The application efficiency of surface methods is low as lot of irrigation water lost by evaporation and deep percolation. If fields are prepare in suitable lengths and slope, and surface roughness and soil Infilteration ratio are some how scientifically design and controlled. the application efficiency of these methods can be increased as much as 50 to 60 percent. In sub-soil method of irrigation water is not applie at the surface of the fields but at the root zone of the crops. It is possible to achieve even higher than 80% irrigation efficiency by this method of irrigation.      …

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EFFICIENCIES OF IRRIGATION

EFFICIENCIES OF IRRIGATION There, it had been stated that existing water resources The country are adequate to irrigate only 50 percent of the cultivable area. This aspect makes it imperative for Indian Engineers to devise ways and means, to conserve water and make its judicious and economical use in irrigation. Studies conducted on canal irrigation projects located in northern India reveal that 15 – 20% of the water supplied from diversion headworks is lost in main and branch canals only 6–8% losses occur in major and minor distributaries. Out of remaining about 50% water supplied to fields, About 22% is further lost due to surface evaporation, deep percolation, and irregular distribution. The effective percentage of water that is utilized by the crops The form of evapotranspiration or consumptive use, is only 28–29% of the total water released in the main canal from diversion headworks. From this study, it is clear…

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Factors affect consumptive use of water
factors affect consumptive use of water

Factors affect consumptive use of water

Learn: Following factors affect consumptive use of water,Evaporation, which is dependent upon humidity,Mean monthly temperature,Cropping pattern,Growing season of the crop, FACTORS THAT AFFECT CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER Following factors affect consumptive use of water: Evaporation, which is dependent upon humidity Mean monthly temperature, Cropping pattern, Growing season of the crop, Monthly precipitation in the area, Wind velocity, Methods of irrigation and irrigation practices, Soil and topography of the region, Depth of water applied for irrigation.    

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DUTY OF WELL WATER
DUTY OF WELL WATER

DUTY OF WELL WATER

DUTY OF WELL WATER Duty of well water is expressed as for tank irrigation. Discharge of the well can be easily found out and then area of crop matured by this discharge, can be expressed as so many hectares per cumec. Duty of well water is usually more than the duty of water obtained from tanks or irrigation channels. Following are the reasons for this .. Well is usually located in the middle of the area it has to irrigate. This aspect reduces the length of the channels and thus evaporation losses are very much reduced during conveyance of water. Moreover channels are very small and are usually lined which furth eliminate the loss of water by seepage. The water is given to the field only when it is most required. ..Field Kiaries are usually very small in relation to tank or canal irrigation. Water spreads on the Kiary in…

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