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Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

Solution by Trial and Error Method
Solution by Trial and Error Method

Solution by Trial and Error Method

Solution by Trial and Error Method Make a table as shown in Table0.0 Choose time interval of 4 hours and enter these values in column(1) of this table. In column (2) enter reservoir levels at start of each time interval. Calculate inflow of flood and enter its values in column 3 for each time interval. Now using discharge-elevation curve of Fig. 9.13 find out the discharge over spillway at the start of each time interval corresponding to level of water in column (2) and enter them in column 4. Assume trial elevations, and enter them into column (5). For these trial elevations, calculate spillway discharge and enter them in column (6). Determine the mean outflow rate by taking mean of column (4) and column (6). Enter mean values in column (7). Convert the values of column (7) into outflow volume in m3 and enter in column(8). The volume of outflow…

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Some Minor Dams
SOME MINOR DAMS

Some Minor Dams

SOME MINOR DAMS Arch dam, and buttress dams come under the category of medium dams, although their use is not very common. They have been discussed quite in details. Earth dams and gravity dams are the most commonly used dams. They will be discussed in their full perspective in subsequent chapters separately. Steel dams and timber dams are also sometimes adopted but only as a temporary measure of storing water. A brief description of steel and timber dams which are considered as minor dams have been given here. 1. Steel dams. These dams are not in common use. No dam in Indian has yet been constructed of steel. In USA some dams had been constructed in steel in early part of this century. These dams consist of a deck slab made of steel plates. These plates are supported by inclined struts. These dams may also be of cantilever type. In…

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Earth Dams
EARTH DAMS

Earth Dams

EARTH DAMS INTRODUCTION As the name of this dam indicates, it is constructed by using locally available soil predominantly. These dam have been constructed since early days of civilisation. Even today, earthen dams are the most common types of dams. The following are the main reasons due to which these dams have been and still continue to be the most commonly used types. The basic material used in the construction, is the local soil. This aspect makes these dams economical. The science of soil mechanics has recently developed to such a stage that dams constructed from earth by adopting the modern theories of soil mechanics, can be as equally relied upon as those of gravity dams. No specific type of foundation is required. They can be constructed on any type of foundation. No skill of very high standard is required. No materials has to be imported from outside.

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Classification of Earthen Dams
CLASSIFICATION OF EARTHEN DAMS

Classification of Earthen Dams

CLASSIFICATION OF EARTHEN DAMS Earthen dams may be classified in two ways: Classification based upon the method of construction. Classification based upon the section of the dam. 1. Classification Based Upon the Method of Construction. Under this classification earthen dams can be (i) rolled fill earth dams and (ii) hydraulic fill earth dams. (i) Rolled-fill earth dams.  In the construction of such dams successive layers of moistened earth are laid one after the other. Each layer is laid after the layer of earth. Sheeps foot roller is mostly used for carrying out the process of compaction. Bulldozers, scrapers, draglines, like heavy earth moving machinery is use for the purpose of earth work. Moisture content during compaction is maintain at the level of optimum moisture. Proper slope of the dam is maintained during construction. (ii) Hydraulic fill dams. Outer edges of the embankment are maintained slightly higher than the middle part…

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Advantages and disadvantages of dams
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DAMS

Advantages and disadvantages of dams

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DAMS (A) Gravity Dams Advantages Maintenance cost is negligible. They are specially suitable for deep steep valley conditions where no other dam is possible. If suitable foundation is available, such dams can be constructed for very large heights. Because they can be constructed in very large heights, they can store more amount of water. If suitable separate place is not available for installation of spillways, they can be installed in the dam section itself. This dam gives prior indication of instability. \If remedial measures are taken in time, unsafe dams may even be rendered safe. Even if they cannot be made sale they give sufficient time for the people to move out the area likely to be submerged due to failure of the dam. Silting rate of the reservoir can be reduced considerably by installing undersluices in the dam near the bed of…

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Classification of dams
CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS

Classification of dams

CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS Dams may be classified in several ways as follows: 1. Classification Based on Materials of Construction. According to this classification the following may be the types of dams: Earth fill dams Rock fill dams Concrete dams. Masonry dams. Steel dams. Timber dams. Earth Fill Dams. (i) Earth fill dams Earth fill dams are the oldest types of dams. This dam structure consists of local soil mainly. This dam is not 100% impervious. Water percolates through the body of the dam but rate of percolation is kept under check and percolation line of hydraulic gradient line of percolating water is not allowed to get exposed anywhere. This dam does not require much of skill. They also prove economical as mostly local soil is used in their construction. The biggest drawback of these dams is that they cannot be constructed in large heights. (ii) Rock Fill Dam. These dams…

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Selection of site for dam
SELECTION OF SITE FOR DAM

Selection of site for dam

SELECTION OF SITE FOR DAM Following points should be considered while selecting the site for the dam. Suitable foundation for the dam should be available. The width of the river at dam site should be minimum so as to keep the length of the dam minimum and thus economical. In order to provide large basin for the reservoir, the site should open out upstream. If river is deep, but there is raised bed level existing, the dam should preferably be located at the raised bed. This will help in keeping height of the dam less. Such a situation. Proper separate site for location of spillways should be available. If separate spillway site is not available, the width of the river should be sufficient to locate spillway in the dam proper. The materials of construction for the dam should be locally available. Very costly land should not submerge in water because…

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General dams
General dams

General dams

INTRODUCTION The dam is a barrier construct across the river to store water on its upstream side. Due to construction of a dam the water level of the river on its upstream is very much raised. Due to rise in water level large areas lying upstream of the dam get submerged. Dams are constructed to store the river water in form of an artificial lake or reservoir. The stored water can be utilized for generation of hydro-electric power, water supply.

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Measuring the average velocity of flow
METHODS OF MEASURING THE AVERAGE VELOCITY OF FLOW

Measuring the average velocity of flow

METHODS OF MEASURING THE AVERAGE VELOCITY OF FLOW Following six methods can be used for determining the average velocity of flow: Surface floats or simply floats, Double floats, Velocity rods, Current meter, Pitot tube, and Travelling screens. 1. Surface Floats. A float or surface float is nothing but a piece of cork or anything which can float on water. Such a float gives surface velocity of flow only. The distance travelled by such a float divided by the time taken to travel a   specified distance, gives the surface velocity of flow. Surface floats are simultaneously released in each of the seven compartments of the river and time taken by the float of each compartment in reaching section EF from AB is noted. Surface velocity for each compartment can then be computed by dividing the distance between AB and EF, by the time taken by the float of the corresponding…

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Measurement of area of cross sectional
MEASUREMENT OF AREA OF CROSS-SECTION

Measurement of area of cross sectional

MEASUREMENT OF AREA OF CROSS-SECTION In the case of canals there is no difficulty in measuring the cross-sectional area. Canals are always of some regular shape whose area can be found out by any geometrical formula. But in case of natural streams and rivers, it is not very easy to determine the area of cross-section as their sections are not regular. In this case area of cross-section of the river can be determined as follows. A river is flowing from left to right. Select AB, CD and EF sections of the river and pull cables at all these sections across the river. The distance between sections AB, CD, and CD, EF may be anything, say 100 m. Wooden battens are attached to all the cables and sections of river at the cable points are   divided into equal parts. In our case we have divided each cable into seven equal…

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