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Civil engineering

Civilengineering Subjects tutorial : A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineers include planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.

Civil engineers play a major role in developing workable solutions to construct, renovate, repair, maintain, and upgrade infrastructure. The infrastructure includes roads, mass transit, railroads, bridges, airports, storage buildings, terminals, communication and control towers, water supply and treatment systems, storm water control systems, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, as well as living and working areas, recreational buildings, and ancillary structures for civil and civic needs. Without a well-maintained and functioning infrastructure, the urban area cannot stay healthy, grow, and prosper.

Some of the subsets that civil engineers can specialize in include photogrammetry, surveying, mapping, community and urban planning, and waste management and risk assessment. Various engineering areas that civil engineers can specialize in include geotechnical, construction, structural, environmental, water resources, and transportation engineering. See Civil engineering, Coastal engineering, Construction engineering, Engineering, Environmental engineering, Highway engineering, River engineering, Surveying, Transportation engineering

comparison of working stress method and limit state method

Learn : comparison of working stress method and limit state method, working stress method,Drawbacks of the working stress method, Limit state method :  Limit state of collapse, Limit state of serviceability. COMPARISON OF WORKING STRESS METHOD AND LIMIT STATE METHOD Working Stress method and Drawbacks of the working stress method Working Stress method This method of design was the oldest one. It is based on the elastic theory and assumes that both steel and concrete and elastic and obey Hook's law. It means that the stress is directly proportional to strain up to the point of collapse. Based on the elastic theory, and assuming that the bond between steel and concrete is perfect, permissible stresses of the materials are obtained. The basis of this method is that the permissible stresses are not exceeded any where in the structure when it is subjected to worst combination of working loads. In this method, the…

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Limit state concept
Limit state concept

Limit state concept

Learn : Limit state concept,Limit State of Collapse,Limit State of Serviceability Limit state is the acceptable limit of safety,serviceability requ.before failure. Limit state concept The aim of this method is that the structure should be able to withstand safely all the load that are liable to act on it throughout its life and it should also satisfy the serviceability requirements of limiting deflection and cracking. Limit state is defined as the acceptable limit of safety and serviceability requirements before failure. The most important limit states which are considered in design as are follows: (i)        Limit state of collapse. (ii)       Limit state of serviceability  Limit State of Collapse This limit state is also called as strength limit state as it corresponds to the maximum load carrying capacity i.e., the safety requirements of the structure. The limit state of collapse is assessed from collapse of the whole or part of the structure.…

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Types of problem in T Beam | Working Stress Method
Types of problem in T Beam

Types of problem in T Beam | Working Stress Method

Learn : Types of problem in T Beam :  Procedure for Determining the Moment of Resistance of the Given Section in T beam,Find Stresses in Steel and Concrete in T beam,To design the section for given loads.Design of T beam TYPES OF PROBLEM IN T BEAM To determine the moment of resistance of the given section in T beam. To Find Stresses in Steel and Concrete in T beam. To design of T beam.  Procedure for Determining the Moment of Resistance of the Given Section in T beam Given : Dimensions of the section i.e., bw,  bf,  Df,  d. Area of steel Ast Material - grade of concrete and steel (i)        Determine σcbc and σst from the Tables 2.1 and 2.2 for given grades of concrete and steel Calculater modular ratio (m) \[m=\frac{280}{3\sigma_{cbc}}\] (ii)       Determine critical neutral axis (nc) \[\frac{m.\sigma_{cbc}}{\sigma_{st}}=\frac{n_{c}}{d-n_{c}}\] (iii)     Determine actual neutral axis (n) : To reduce the trial…

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Repainting wood work
Repainting Doors

Repainting wood work

Learn : Repainting wood work,Repainting Wood Furniture,Repainting Doors,Repainting Cabinetry,wood floors Repainting wood work (i)        If the old paint be unsightly, unsound, blistering or flaking off then it should be removed by the application of some paint remover, by scrapping or by burning the paint with a blow lamp. (ii)       On surface disfigured by smoke a coat of one kilogram glue and 60 gms of unslaked lime in four kilograms of water should first be given. (iii)     The surface should be thoroughly cleaned by washing it with soap and water. All greasy spots should be painted with turpentine oil and washed with soap and water. A solution of washing soda in water is used for cleaning the surface of all greasy spots. (iv)      All holes and cracks etc. should be filled up with putty i.e. stopping should be done. (v)       Before the application of each coat the surface should be rubbed smooth…

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Painting plastered surfaces
New plastered surfaces

Painting plastered surfaces

Learn : Painting plastered surfaces,New plastered surfaces Painting plastered surfaces (i)        A plastered surface should be painted only after it has thoroughly dried, otherwise the paint would get spoil. (ii)       To avoid sucking of paint by plaster soak the surface with a pore filling solution which will dry off leaving an impervious surface. A wash of 1 kg of size, 500 gm of soft soap and 9 liters of creamy lime wash is recommended. (iii)     Cracks or holes, if any, should be filled in with glaziers putty and the surface sand papered on its drying. (iv)      First two coats should consists of white lead and boiled linseed oil. (v)       Third coat should consist of white lead, linseed oil, desired pigment and a little turpentine oil. This coat is applied after the surface has been rubbed smooth. Finishing coat having the same composition as the third coat but having more of…

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Painting new wood work
Painting new wood work

Painting new wood work

Learn : Painting new wood work : Knotting or killing the knot, Application of priming coat, Stopping, Application of finishing coats. Painting new wood work   Following points should be attended to before painting new wood work:   (i)        Only well seasoned timber should be painted otherwise not only shall the paint be spoilt but also due to dry rot the timber is likely to decay early. Also the paint surface will otherwise crack due to uneven shrinkage   (ii)       It is advisable not to paint excessively dry wood.   (iii)     Paint should be applied to only dry surface. (iv)      The surface to be painted should be rendered smooth, clean and free from rust or dirt. (v)       All nails should be punched in 1/2 cm below the surface. (vi)      Large and loose knots should be cut out and filled tightly with correctly fitting wooden pieces. (vii)    The surface should be…

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Removal of old paint and painting
Removal of old paint and painting

Removal of old paint and painting

Learn : Removal of old paint and painting : Remove the paint, old paint and painting Removal of old paint and painting REMOVAL OF OLD PAINT One of the following two methods could be employed to remove old paint from a surface : (i)        Burning the paint by directing the flame of a blow lamp on the painted surface and scrapping it. The method is quite suitable, quick and economical in case of iron or steel work but only expert workmen could be depended upon for its use in case of wood work. A little carelessness could leave the wood charred. (ii)       Applying any one of the following paint removers : (a)       Hot solution of equal parts of soap, potash and quick lime is applied on the surface and kept on it for 24 hours, after which washing with hot water will remove the paint. (b)       Two parts of quicklime and…

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Preparation of oil paints
Preparation of oil paints

Preparation of oil paints

Learn :Preparation of oil paints Learn : Composition of oil paint PREPARATION OF OIL PAINTS. To get started making oil paint, you’ll need: 1) Cold-pressed, raw, or unrefined linseed oil – Linseed oil tends to do much of the heavy lifting in many oil based paint formulations. The reason is that unlike most plant based oils, linseed oil is known as a drying oil. For example, if you were to spill some olive oil on your counter top, chances are it would still be wet to the touch many weeks later. Linseed oil is different in that if you were to spill some on your counter, it would dry to form a tough film within a few days. While you’ll be able to find linseed oil at most artist supply shops, you can also find it at the grocery store as flax seed oil. Despite what the fancy artist paint brands…

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Characteristics of a good paint
charecteristics of a paint,

Characteristics of a good paint

Learn : Characteristics of a good paint,Paints, Paints Classification Characteristics of a good paint Paints Paints  are used to protect metals, timber or plastered surfaces from the corrosive effects of weather, heat, moisture or gases etc. and also to improve their appearance. Paints Classification Paints in common use are classified as oil paints, water paints, cement paints and bituminous paints. There are some "special paints" used for special purposes e.g. heat resisting or fireproof paints, chlorinated rubber paints (for protection against acid fumes etc.) luminous paints (for visibility of painted surfaces in the dark) etc., etc. Characteristics Following are the Characteristics of a good paint:   (i)        It should have a good body or spreading power. (ii)       It should work smoothly and freely and be capable of being laid in a thin coat with the brush. (iii)     It should form durable, tough and resistant to wear film on drying.   (iv)     …

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Composition of oil paints
Composition of oil paints : Base,Vehicle,Drier,Colouring pigment,Thinner

Composition of oil paints

Learn :Composition of oil paints: Base: White lead, Red lead, Zinc oxide (or zinc white), Iron Oxide, and metallic powders such as Aluminum, Copper and Bronze etc. are the commonly used bases,Vehicle: Oils most commonly used as vehicles are : Linseed oil, Poppy oil. Nut oil and Tung oil. Colouring pigments,Solvent or thinner,Drier,Inert filler Composition of oil paints Oil paints consist essentially of – (i) a base, (ii) a vehicle (always an oil, generally raw or boiled linseed oil), and (iii) one or more colouring pigments. It may also contain one or more of (iv) a solvent or thinner, (v) a drier, and (vi) an inert filler. By suitable variation of the type and proportion of the various constituents the paints can be made dry, glossy or flat as desired. Other properties such as permeability to water could also be varied accordingly. All the possible constituents of paints are described in…

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