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Basics of Cement concrete

Basics of Cement concrete.    It get by mixing the following four ingredients in predetermined proportions. Cement.    Sand,   Gravel and   Water   Plastic mass  First Step – In a Concrete mixer when we mix the above four ingredients .   Second step – We get the plastic mass of concrete.  To get a desired shape of concrete we …

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meter and non meter fall

Meter and non meter fall

METER AND NON-METER FALLS The falls may be divided into following two types: 1. Meter falls 2. Non-meter falls. 1. Meter Falls. The falls which can be used to measure the discharge flowing over them, are known as meter falls. Such falls must have broad crest so that the discharge coefficient remains constant under variable …

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Elementor #5517

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Design of Canals

LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF A CANAL The points which should be consider in fixing alignment of the canal. Actually, the whole of the area where irrigation is propose, is surveyed, and contour plans prepared. The other features of the area are also marked over the plans. The contour plan on which other features of the area …

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Silt control at head regulator

SILT CONTROL AT HEAD REGULATOR Excess silt entering into the main canal has to be prevented by all the possible means. If excess silt gets to enter the main canal, it will cause silting of the whole canal system and ultimately. The capacity of the canal will be reduce. The silt entry into the main …

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TYPES OF SPILLWAYS

Type of spillways

TYPES OF SPILLWAYS The spillways may be broadly classified as: Emergency spillways, and Main spillways. EMERGENCY SPILLWAYS Main spillway is the spillway which is called upon to work under normal conditions of flood. Emergency spillway is provid to deal with abnormal conditions of flood. Under normal flood conditions, the emergency spillways are not required to …

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LOAD COMBINATIONS

Load combinations

LOAD COMBINATIONS In Section 13.2 various forces that are likely to act on the dam have been discussed. But all these forces seldom act simultaneously on the dam. There are some combinations of the loads that may act simultaneously. Design of the dam should be based on the most adverse combination of “probable load condition”. …

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MODES OF FAILURE OF GRAVITY DAMS

Modes of failure of gravity dams

MODES OF FAILURE OF GRAVITY DAMS A gravity dam can fail due to the following reasons: Overturning of the dam Sliding of the dam Crushing of the dam or Foundation Development of tension in the dam. 1. Overturning of the Dam. If the resultant of all the possible forces (internal as well as external) acting …

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FORCES ACTING ON A GRAVITY DAM

forces acting on a gravity dam

FORCES ACTING ON A GRAVITY DAM A detailed sketch of a gravity dam is shown in Fig. 13.1. All the predominant forces, that act on the dam, have been shown in the figure itself. The forces that act on the dam are the following: Weight of the dam Horizontal hydrostatic pressure due to water Uplift …

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