Some terms in most common use in regard to run-off
Some terms in most common use in regard to run-off

Some terms in most common use in regard to run-off

SOME TERMS IN MOST COMMON USE IN REGARD TO RUN-OFF 1. Hydrograph. It is a curve or plot of discharge versus time at any section of a river. It represents the flow characteristic of the river. 2. Period of Surface Run-off. It is the time taken by the surface run off to pass the given section of the river, after the surface run-off makes its first appearance at the section. 3. Period of Rise. It is the time take by the surface run-off to reach its maximum value from the time of its beginning. 4. Time of Concentration. It is the time require by the water to reach the outlet point from the most remote point of the drainage area. When a storm has been in progress for a time equal to the time of concentration. it is assume that all the part of the catchment start contributing to the…

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Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.
Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |Points shall be noted while taking measurements.

Measurements |points shall be noted while taking measurements. |Measurement|points shall be noted while taking measurements.|Methods of measurement|Measurement|Measurement of works| Measurement of civil engineering works occupies a very important place in planning and execution of works, right from the stage of preparation of estimate to the final completion of works and settlement of payment of the works to the contractors. There are some differences regarding the method of measurement among the State Government departments. But the method introduced by the Indian Standard (I.S.) is legal and basic document for removing ambiguities and settling all the disputes for making payment to the contractors. Following points shall be noted while taking measurements. 1. Each item shall be fully described. 2. The measurement shall be taken in the order of sequence of length, breadth or width and height or depth. 3. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest to 0.01 m. 4. Area shall…

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Painting new wood work
Painting new wood work

Painting new wood work

Learn : Painting new wood work : Knotting or killing the knot, Application of priming coat, Stopping, Application of finishing coats. Painting new wood work   Following points should be attended to before painting new wood work:   (i)        Only well seasoned timber should be painted otherwise not only shall the paint be spoilt but also due to dry rot the timber is likely to decay early. Also the paint surface will otherwise crack due to uneven shrinkage   (ii)       It is advisable not to paint excessively dry wood.   (iii)     Paint should be applied to only dry surface. (iv)      The surface to be painted should be rendered smooth, clean and free from rust or dirt. (v)       All nails should be punched in 1/2 cm below the surface. (vi)      Large and loose knots should be cut out and filled tightly with correctly fitting wooden pieces. (vii)    The surface should be…

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Wood wool Building material

WOOD WOOL Generally it is bye-product of big timber industries in the form of shavings of light weight timbers like chir, deodar and kail etc. At times it may be specially prepared with the help of special planning machines. It is an effective heat and sound insulating material. It is fairly cheap and flexible. Generally it is used in packaging of delicate materials for transportation and in the manufacture of fibre boards. Wood wool Properties Wood wool fibers can be compressed and when the pressure is removed they resume their initial volume. This is a useful property for minimizing their volume when shipping. Due to its high volume and large surface area, wood wool can be used for applications where water or moisture retention is necessary. The width of wood wool fibers varies from 1.5 to 20 mm, while their length is usually around 500 mm (depending on the production process). In…

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Rexine Building material

REXINE Rexine : Molten PVC is applied to cotton cloth coming out of calendering machine and the treated cloth is then subjected to pressure between steel rollers. It  is then printed in desired colours and patterns. It is finally polished with varnish and dried. It is available in rolls. It is mostly used in upholstery work. Leatheroid is synthetic leather used in making coverings for furniture and for interior decoration work. Rexine is the registered trademark of an artificial leather leather cloth fabric produced in the United Kingdom by Rexine Ltd of Hyde, near Manchester, England. It was made of cloth surfaced with a mixture of cellulose nitrate (a low explosive also used as the propellant in firearms rounds), camphor oil, pigment and alcohol, embossed to look like leather. Used as a bookbinding material and upholstery covering, Rexine was also widely used in trimming and upholstering the interiors of motor…

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Linoleum floors Building material

Learn : LINOLEUM : Linoleum floors Types of linoleum - Plain linoleum,Stamped or printed linoleum,Inlaid linoleum,Uses of linoleum, Thickness of linoleum LINOLEUM In it linseed oil is oxidized by exposure to air into a tough, rubber like substance which is then mixed with ground cork, wood flour, colouring matter and other ingredients. The resulting plastic material is pressed upon a backing of burlap. It is then thoroughly cured and seasoned by passing it through drying ovens to get linoleum which is used as floor covering for wood and concrete floors. After drying the whole surface is applied with transparent oil varnish. Types of linoleum Linoleum is of three types : plain, printed or stamped and inlaid. It is available in the form of tiles or as rolls 2.0 metre wide. Length of rolls is not less than 5.5 metre. overall thickness is 4.5, 3.2, 2.0 and 1.6 mm. Tiles are…

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Asbestos,Asbestos cement sheets,Asbestos cement boards,Bakelite

Asbestos :Properties,Uses, Asbestos cement sheets,Types of AC sheets,Asbestos cement flat sheets,unreinforced corrugated asbestos sheet,Asbestos cement boards,Bakelite ASBESTOS Asbestos is available in nature as a mineral in Marwar, Garhwal (in U.P.); Bhandara (in MP) and Mysore. It is a silicate of calcium and magnesium found in the form of very thin fibers in venin’s of metamorphic rocks. Properties : It has low water permeability, is vermin proof and resists rot. It is brown, grey and white in colour. It is good for heat sound and electric insulation. It is resistant to acids and alkalies. Its fibres are capable of being woven into fabrics. It is highly durable and is strong. Its specific gravity is 3.10 Its melting point is 1200-11 50ºC It acts as reinforcing material when mixed with ordinary Portland Cement. Uses. Asbestos is used extensively for heat insulation. It is used for making fire proof padding, packing sheets and…

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Quarrying, Quarry and its location

QUARRYING open, or surface, excavation of rock used for various purposes, including construction, ornamentation, road building, and as an industrial raw material. Rock that has been quarried is commonly called stone. Quarrying methods depend chiefly on the desired size and shape of the stone and its physical characteristics. For industrial use (e.g., limestone for preparing cement), as the aggregate in concrete, or for road beds, the rock is shattered. Explosives are detonated in a series of holes drilled in the rock in a pattern designed to yield the greatest amount of fracturing. The rock fragments may be further reduced in crushing machines and sorted according to size by screening. For building stone, rocks that do not shatter are separated by blasting; for softer rocks or when explosives cannot be used (e.g., because they would disturb adjacent workings), a process known as broaching, or channeling, is used. In this process a…

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characteristics of good building stone

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD BUILDING STONES A good building stone should essentially have the following characteristics of good building stone, qualities:  characteristics of good building stone Appearance. For the face work of buildings this property is of extreme importance. From architectural point of view color of the stone should be such as to go well with the surroundings. Lighter shades should be preferred to the darker ones as the latter are less durable, Red and the brown shades of sedimentary rocks are due to the presence of oxide of iron-which, if present in excess, is liable to disfigure the stone with rust stains and to disintegrate it. Stones should be of uniform colour and free from clay holes, bands or spots of color whatsoever. characteristics of good building stone General Structure. Stone, when broken in a direction other than that of cleavage (if it exists), should not give dull appearance. It…

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Building stones

Learn : Stones, Building stones,causes - Stone are gradually losing their universal use as a building materials, Uses - Stones are extensively used STONES Stone is a natural material of construction and is obtained from quarries. Since prehistoric days it has been used for constructing different components of buildings like foundations, walls, lintels, floors, roof etc. It has also been used for constructing bridges, wires, dams etc. Stones that are used for construction of structures are known as building stones. Most of the ancient temples and forts of India were built with stones. The Taj and the Victoria Memorial (Calcutta) were built in white marble had from Rajasthan. Red Fort and Jama Maszid (Delhi) were built with red sand stone from Agra. Parliament House, Rashtrapati Bhawan and the Central Secretariat (Delhi) were built with red and grey sand stones from Rajasthan.             Stone are gradually losing their universal use as…

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