U.S.B.R. Drum gate
U.S.B.R. DRUM GATES

U.S.B.R. Drum gate

U.S.B.R. DRUM GATES This gate remains hinged at the top of the crest of the spillway. This gate when open i.e. when not in position remains swung into a ditch formed at the crest of the spillway. In open position drum of the gate itself forms the crest of the spillway while the framework supporting the skin plate remains in the ditch. See Fig. 14.22 dotted position. The gate remains hinged at point A. The gates is put in closed position with the help of power driven winches only. BEAR TRAP GATE This gate consists of two parts, one part slipping over the other for some length. It is mostly use for low Navigation dams.    

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Shaft spillway
Shaft spillway

Shaft spillway

SHAFT SPILLWAY This spillway consists of a vertical shaft and a horizontal conduit. The top of the shaft is specially designe, through which water enters and then drops through a vertical shaft and finally gets carrie to the D/S side by a horizontal conduit. This spillway is also sometimes know drop inlet or morning glory spillway. The shaft spillway may be standard crest type or flat crest type. Both types are shown in Fig. 14.10. Small shaft spillway may be made from steel or concrete pipes, but large spillways are made from heavily reinforce pipes. Diversion tunnels use for diverting the river water during the construction of the dam may be plugg and then use as shaft spillway by attaching vertical shafts to the horizontal tunnels. Top flared inlet of the vertical shaft is know morning glory and is considered essential feature of the shaft spillway.

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Vertical lift gates
VERTICAL LIFT GATES

Vertical lift gates

VERTICAL LIFT GATES This is the gate that is in most common use in all the irrigation structures. It consists of a Rectangular skin plate of mild steel. This plate remains supported on a framework of I-girders or channel sections. Grooves are constructed on the crest as well as along the inside of piers. The gates slide or move, vertically up end down in these grooves. Water pressure acting on the gate is transferred to the crest and piers. In order to facilitate lifting and lowering of the gates, rollers are fitted in the grooves. The gates are lifted with the help of winches. Counterweights are also used to ease the lifting of the gates. Counterweights remain suspended with one end of the ropes. The other end of the ropes being connected to the gates. If gates are very big in size, they may be constructed in more than one…

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Rolling gates
Rolling gate.

Rolling gates

ROLLING GATE This grate is show in Fig. 14.24. It consists of a steel cylinder as large in diameter as the height of the opening and spanning between the piers. Each pier has an inclined rack. The gate is wound around the periphery of the cylinder. The gate is also attach to the incline rack with the help of toothed gears. ItGate can be roll while opening and unroll which closing the gate.

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Trash rack gate
Trash rack

Trash rack gate

TRASH RACK It is not a gate but a sort of permanent structure that is install at the mouth of the opening. Its main purpose is to prevent the entrance of debris into the openings. A framed trash rack structure of steel sections or of R.C.C. members is a construct and iron bars openings of the framework to prevent the entrance of debris. See Fig. 14.25. This structure is usually construct at the entrances of sluiceways or penstocks etc.    

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Fish belly flap gate
FISH BELLY FLAP GATE

Fish belly flap gate

FISH BELLY FLAP GATE This gate is show in Fig. 14.26. This gate is also know as the Bascule type of gate. This is use at the top of the weir crest to store extra stormwater. The gate is fitt on the crest with the help of a hinged joint. It is operated with the help of a lever rod. Example.1 The Head of water over the crest of the ogee spillway is 3 m and the coefficient of discharge 2.5. Weir is 100 m long and the height of the crest above the base of the approach channel is 10 m. The width of the approach channel is equal to the length of the weir. Find out the discharge passing over the spillway. Solution. \[Q= CLH^{3/2}\]   \[Q= 2.5\times 100\times 3^{3/2}= 1300 cumec.\] Velocity of approach \[V_{a}= \frac{Q}{Head\times width.of.channel}\] \[= \frac{1300}{(10+3)100}= 1m\] \[H_{a}= \frac{V_{a}^{2}}{2g}= \frac{(1)^{2}}{2\times 9.81}= 0.05m\] \[H= h+H_{a}=…

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Slipways Outlet works
Slipways Outlet works

Slipways Outlet works

OUTLET WORKS The impounded water in the reservoir has to be regulat through outlet works to use it usefully. Outlet works are required for following purposes (i) Feeding water for power generation. (ii) Discharging heavily laden silty water D/S. (iii) Supplying water to irrigation channels. (iv) Supplying water for water supply purpose. (v) To evacuate the water from the reservoir in anticipation of flood inflow. Outlet works consist of three component parts. 1. Water way. 2. Gates to control the flow of water. 3. Intake structures. A pipe or tunnel passing though the dam is the water way. It is sometimes also know sluice way. In concrete gravity dams the sluice ways may be made in the body of the dam whereas in case of earth dam they are set up outside the limits of the embankment. If sluice way has to be provided in the body of the earth…

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Questions in this chapter
BEST QUESTIONS SPILLWAYS

Questions in this chapter

What do you understand by the term spillway? How the spillways are broadly classifie? On what factors the discharging capacity of the spillway is fix. What are the functions of a spillway? Prepare a list of main spillways. Make a neat sketch of an Ogee type spillway and describe its working in brief. Why emergency spillway is installed? Is it made of earth or cement concrete? Explain the formation of a hydraulic jump. Derive the expression for height of hydraulic jump on D/S side. What are various methods of energy dissipation? Compare jump height curve with tail water curve and suggest the protective works which would be most effective for dissipation of excess energy of flowing water. Discribe various types of siphon spillways with the help of neat sketches. 10. Draw the sketches of (i) Radial gates. (ii) Vertical lift gates. (iii) Needle gates.  

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Diversion Head Works
Diversion Head Works

Diversion Head Works

INTRODUCTION A structure whose main purpose is to supply water to the off taking canal is know as head works. When the off taking canal is to supply water for irrigation purpose, its headworks is call irrigation head works. Irrigation headworks may be divid into two categories. 1. Diversion headworks or simply head works. 2. Storage headwork. 1. Diversion head works. The purpose of this head work is to divert river water into the off taking canal. It is located across the river near the point of the take-off of the canal. A diversion headwork performs the following functions: It regulates the flow in the off-taking canal. Silt entrance into the canal is controlled. It raises the level of water in the river. This causes diversion of the river water into the off taking canal, under gravity flow. By raising the level of water in the river with the help…

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Types of diversion head works
types of diversion head work

Types of diversion head works

TYPES OF DIVERSION HEAD WORKS Diversion works can be classified under the following two heads: 1. Temporary bunds or spurs. 2. Permanent weirs and barrages. Temporary bunds or spurs are temporary works, which have to be constructed every year after floods. These bunds cannot sustain the assault of floods and get washed away. Immediately after floods, they are again constructed. Temporary bunds can be constructed on small streams only. Such works are generally carried out by the nearby villagers jointly, so as to make arrangements for irrigation for their fields for lean months of flow. Such temporary spurs or bunds can be economically constructed in boulder reaches of the river. However, for important diversion works permanent weirs and barrages have to design and construct. Weir. Weir is a solid obstruction, construct across the river. It is used to raise the water level in the river and then divert it into…

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