Density of soil solids
Density of soil

Density of soil solids

Learn Density of soil, density of soil formula, density of soil definition, density of soil meaning, density of soil solids, bulk density, dry density, density of solids, saturated density, submerged density. Density of soil solids. The density of soil is defined as the mass of the soil per unit volume.  Bulk density. The bulk density or moist density is the total mass M of the soil per unit volume \[\rho = \frac {M}{V}\] It is expressed in terms of g/cm3 or kg/m3. Dry density The dry density is the mass of solids per unit of total volume (prior to drying) of the soil mass: \[\rho_{d} = \frac {M_{d}}{V}\] Density of solids  The density of soil solids is the mass of soil solids (Md) per unit of volume of solids (Vs): \[\rho_{s} = \frac {M_{d}}{V_{s}}\] Saturated density When the soil mass is saturated, its bulk density is called saturated density. Thus,…

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Water content formula of soil
soil as a three phase system

Water content formula of soil

Learn water content formula in a given mass of a soil  Water content formula . The water content formula w, also called the moisture content, is defined as the ratio of weight of water Ww to the weight of solids (Ws or Wd) in a given mass of soil. The water content  formula w is generally expressed as a percentage. However, when used in the formulae giving relationship between certain quantities, it may be expressed as a fraction   The usual procedure to find the natural water content is to take a mass of about 20 g to 30 g of soil sample in a container and determine its mass M very accurately. The soil sample is then kept in an oven (105°C–110°C) for about 24 hours so that it becomes perfectly dry. Its dry mass Md is then determined and the water content is calculated from the relation  …

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Soil as a three phase system
soil as a three phase system

Soil as a three phase system

A soil  as a three phase system consisting of solid particles (called soil grains), water and air. The void space between the soil grains is filled partly with water and partly with air. However, if we take a dry soil mass, the voids are filled with air only. In case of a perfectly saturated soil, the voids are filled completely with water. In general, the soil mass has three constituents which do not occupy separate spaces but are blended together forming a complex material [Fig.a)], the properties of which depend upon the relative percentages of these constituents, their arrangement and a variety of other factors. For calculation purposes, it is always more convenient to show these constituents occupying separate spaces, as shown in Fig.(b)(i) and Fig. (b)(ii). As shown in Fig.(b) (i), the total volume V of the soil mass consists of (i) volume of air Va, (ii) volume of water…

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The Term Soil
the term soil

The Term Soil

The Term Soil The term ‘Soil’ has various meanings, depending upon the general professional field in which it is being considered. To an agriculturist, soil is the substance existing on the earth’s surface, which grows and develops plant life. To the geologist also, soil is the material in the relatively thin surface zone within which roots occur, and all the rest of the crust is grouped under the term rock irrespective of its hardness. To an engineer, soil is the unaggregated or uncemented deposits of mineral and/or organic particles or fragments covering large portion of the earth’s crust. It includes widely different materials like boulders, sands, gravels, clays and silts, and the range in the particle sizes in a soil may extend from grains only a fraction of a micron (10–4 cm) in diameter up to large size boulders. Soil engineering, Soil Mechanics or Geotechnique is one of the youngest…

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Classification of surveying

Classification of surveying - classification based upon the nature of the field survey - land, topographical surveys, cadastral marine or hydrographic, surveying. Classification based on the object of survey - engineering, military, mine, geological and archaeological survey. Classification based on instruments used - chain, theodolite, traverse, triangulation,tacheometric, plane table, photogrammetric and aerial survey Classification of surveying Surveys may be classified under headings which define the uses or purpose of the resulting maps. Classification based upon the nature of the field survey  Land Surveying Topographical Surveys: This consists of horizontal and vertical location of certain points by linear and angular measurements and is made to determine the natural features of a country such as rivers, streams, lakes, woods, hills, etc., and such artificial features as roads, railways, canals, towns and villages.  Cadastral Surveys: Cadastral surveys are made incident to the fixing of property lines, the calculation of land area, or the transfer of…

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Primary divisions of survey Plane surveying and Geodetic surveying

Learn primary divisions of survey plane surveying and geodetic surveying spherical triangle and great circle, earths surface Primary division of survey The earth is an oblate spheroid of revolutions, the length of its polar axis (12,713,800 metres) being somewhat less than that of its equatorial axis (12,756,750 metres). Thus, the polar axis is shorter than the equatorial axis by 42.95 kilometres. Relative to the diameter of the earth this is less than 0.34 percent. If we neglect the irregularities of the earth, the surface of the imaginary spheroid is a curved surface, every element of which is normal to the plumb line. The intersection of such a surface with a plane passing through the centre of the earth will form a line continuous around the earth. The portion of such a line is known as ‘level line’ and the circle defined by the intersection is known as ‘great circle’. Thus in…

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Comment On The Importance Of Human Life

The term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome’s Trajan’s Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In “Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction. The bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder. The Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory From or some other dignitary. This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governoof a state or mayor of the city. The Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as The Egyptians developed communication 136 B.C. found on the Rosetta Stone. “The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon’s engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler.…

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Premiere Pro Templates for Fashion Vloggers

The term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome’s Trajan’s Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In “Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction. The bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder. The Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory From or some other dignitary. This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governoof a state or mayor of the city. The Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as The Egyptians developed communication 136 B.C. found on the Rosetta Stone. “The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon’s engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler.…

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Can Teach Us About Supporting Tech Community

The term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome’s Trajan’s Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In “Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction. The bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder. The Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory From or some other dignitary. This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governoof a state or mayor of the city. The Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as The Egyptians developed communication 136 B.C. found on the Rosetta Stone. “The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon’s engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler.…

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Top Audio on Elements Picks: Curated by Specialists

The term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome’s Trajan’s Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In “Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction. The bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder. The Explicit–Implicit Interaction (EII) theory From or some other dignitary. This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governoof a state or mayor of the city. The Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as The Egyptians developed communication 136 B.C. found on the Rosetta Stone. “The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon’s engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler.…

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