Questions in this chapter
BEST QUESTIONS SPILLWAYS

Questions in this chapter

What do you understand by the term spillway? How the spillways are broadly classifie? On what factors the discharging capacity of the spillway is fix. What are the functions of a spillway? Prepare a list of main spillways. Make a neat sketch of an Ogee type spillway and describe its working in brief. Why emergency spillway is installed? Is it made of earth or cement concrete? Explain the formation of a hydraulic jump. Derive the expression for height of hydraulic jump on D/S side. What are various methods of energy dissipation? Compare jump height curve with tail water curve and suggest the protective works which would be most effective for dissipation of excess energy of flowing water. Discribe various types of siphon spillways with the help of neat sketches. 10. Draw the sketches of (i) Radial gates. (ii) Vertical lift gates. (iii) Needle gates.  

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Classification of reservoirs
RESERVOIRS

Classification of reservoirs

CLASSIFICATION OF RESERVOIRS Depending upon the purposes served, the reservoirs may be classified into following categories. Storage or conservation reservoirs Flood control reservoirs Distribution reservoirs Multipurpose reservoirs. 1. Storage or Conservation Reservoirs. These reservoirs are primarily used to maintain minimum supplies of water for irrigation, hydroelectric generation, domestic and industrial water supply schemes, etc. during lean months of discharge in the rivers. We know that discharge in the rivers remains changing day to day, and season to season. During high floods the excess water in the river goes waste while in dry months it may not be sufficient to meet the minimum needs. The storage reservoir is constructed to store the excess water of floods and released gradually as and when required. 2. Flood Control Reservoirs. This reservoir is also called flood mitigation reservoir. The main purpose of this reservoir is to temporarily store the flood water and release slowly…

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Harmful salts in soils
Harmful Salts In Soils

Harmful salts in soils

Learn: Harmful Salts In Soils,effect of pH Value HARMFUL SALTS IN SOILS If the amount of harmful salts becomes excessive in the soil no crop can be grown over it. Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, etc. are some of the harmful salts. But of these, sodium carbonate which is also known as white salt is considered to be the most harmful. If the percentage of harmful salts reaches 0.15 percent it affects the production and if this percentage reaches 0.25 percent it renders the land completely barren. Other salts are also present in the soil but unless their percentage crosses the limit they do not affect the growth of the crops. EFFECT OF pH VALUE The pH value of the soil suitable for crops should lie between 6.0 and 8.5. If pH value exceeds 10.5 the land becomes completely unsuitable for crops.  

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